The Kingdom of Magadha
Around 550 B.C. a small kingdom in the northern part of the region known as the Magadha Kingdom began to expand and flourish. Lead by an aggressive king by the name of Bimsiara Magadha expanded its borders. King Bimsiara used armies, politics, and marriage to add more territory to his kingdom. After his death in 495 B.C. the Kingdom of Bimsiara began to decline rapidly. Around 500 B.C. Persian armies invaded the region, bringing havoc upon the people of Magadha and surrounding city-states. In 327 B.C. Alexander the Great entered into the Valley, and conquered it for a short time. In 321 B.C. a military leader by the name of Chandragupta Maurya overthrew the Magadha king, and declared himself the ruler of the Kingdom of Magadha. Magadha formed one of the sixteen "Great Countries" or regions in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges; its first capital was Rajagriha then Pataliputra. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively, followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh. Two of India's major religions started from Magadha; two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, originated from Magadha. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science, mathematics, astronomy, religion, and philosophy and were considered the Indian "Golden Age". The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Their administrations were divided into executive, judicial, and military functions. Geography
The kingdom of the Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern districts of Patna and Gaya in southern Bihar, and parts of Bengal in the east. It was bounded on the north by the river Ganges, on the east by the river Champa, on the south by the Vindhya mountains and on the west by the river Sone. Later, its boundaries...
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