The Institutional Design of the EU
EU institutions can be divided into two categories: those with supranational guidance such as: Commission, Parliament and Court of Justice and the intergovernmental orientation: Council of Ministers and the European Council. 2. European Parliament
The UE institution which is directly elected by EU voters every 5 years. The number of MEPs for each country is roughly proportionate to its population. The Members of the European Parliament sit in 7 political groups , which are organised by nationality. The institution has three main roles:debating and passing European laws, with the Council, scrutinising other EU institutions, particularly the Commission, to make sure they are working democratically and debating and adopting the EU's budget, with the Council. Parliament has acquired ever more democratic, supervisory and legislative powers with each new Treaty. With the Treaty of Brussels, the Parliament acquired the right to scrutinise the EU accounts, and assess whether the Commission has wisely and correctly spent the EU budget. Single European Act ensured that Parliament's assent is mandatory before a new country can join the EU. The Amsterdam Treaty gave a much stronger position to the Parliament in co-legislating with the Council on a whole range of areas that are subject to EU law. Lisbon Treaty it strengthens the European Parliament, gives national parliaments more responsibility in determining the course of European policy, as well as allowing EU citizens the power of initiative. Also the parliament has the role of co-legislator with increased budgetary powers and a key role in the election of the European Commission President.
2. The Council of Ministers
The Council is composed of 28 national ministers (one of each). The Council of Ministers has a tripel role. As a legislator, as an executive and as a political forum. As a legislator, "the Council" can request legislation and the Commission answer making a proposal. Also, all bill, which comes from the Commission, needs to be approved by the Council and the European Parliament. Finally, it has to lay down its position about the drafts and "reach an agreement in the contents of legislative drafts with the European Parliament" (Buonanno and Nugent, 2013, p.49). As a executive, under the shadow of the Commission, the Council can make arrangements in different areas where the responsibles aren't clearly defined, Europe 2020 Agenda, and the main executive action of the Council is in the Common Security and Defence Policy and the Common Foreign and Security Policy in general. The Council also works as a policy forum about various issues. The discussions can get to the end in a request to the commission or make possible to improve the international relations between countries or the common agenda (Europe 2020). According to the website of the European Union, these are the tasks of the Council: approves the EU legislation, coordinates the various economic policies of the EU, signing agreements between the EU and other countries, approves the annual budget of the EU, develops foreign and defense policies of the EU, coordinates the cooperation between the courts and the police in member countries. The members of the Council of Ministers vary according to the theme of the meeting and the president depends of the rotating presidency of the EU. Only the Council of Foreign Affairs has a permanent president who is the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. In the evolution of the Council is remarkable the change of presidency by the Lisbon Treaty.
3. The European Commission
Is the executive branch of the European institutions and most of the processes and initiatives of the EU are bound to it. The European Commission has to principal parts: The college is formed for 28 commissioners (one for each country member). Commissioners are national nominees, and the president is nominee...
Bibliography: 1. Buonanno, Laurie. Nugent, Neill. (2013). Policies and Policy Processes of the European Union. Palgrave MacMillan.
2. Bonde, Jens-Peter, Consolidated Reader-Friendly Edition of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) as amended by the Treaty of Lisbon. (2008). Foundation for EU democracy. Retrieved September 15, 2014 from:http://www.eudemocrats.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Documents/D-Reader_friendly_latest%20version.pdf
3. European Union (n.d.). European Parliament. EUROPA.EU. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/european-parliament/index_en.htm
4. European Union (n.d.). Treaties and European Parlamient. EUROPA.EU. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/aboutparliament/en/00b82c7869/Treaties-and-the-European-Parliament
5. Consolidated Reader-Friendly Edition of the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) as amended by the Treaty of Lisbon. (2008). Foundation for EU democracy. Retrieved September 15, 2014 from http://www.eudemocrats.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Documents/D-Reader_friendly_latest%20version.pdf
6. European Union (n.d.). Council of the European Union. EUROPA.EU. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/council-eu/index_en.htm
7. European Union (n.d.). Court of Justice of the European Union. EUROPA.EU. Retrieved September 15, 2014, from http://europa.eu/about-eu/institutions-bodies/court-justice/index_en.htm
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