The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution transformed human life by changing methods of manufacturing, the way people made a living, and the products available to them.
The Nature of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution took place in England in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It was made up of four sets of changes: first, the introduction of new technology; second, the use of new mineral sources of energy; third, a concentration of workers in factories; and fourth, new methods of transportation.
The New Industrial Technology
The Industrial Revolution introduced machines to textile manufacturing, iron, printing, papermaking, and engineering industries. The most significant machines were steam engines and the machines used to make cloth.
A.1. Textile Machinery
Until the eighteenth century, the manufacturing of cloth was done by hand. In 1767, James Hargreaves introduced the spinning jenny, which increased the amount of cotton yarn that could be spun. In 1769, Richard Arkwright introduced the water frame, which produced stronger warp yarn. A decade later in 1779, Samuel Crompton combined the jenny and the water frame into one machine called the mule. The mule could produce 300 times as much yarn as a person on a spinning wheel. These machines produced more yarn than weavers could handle until 1787, when Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom. Because of these machines and improvements made to them, English weavers were working 200 times more cotton in 1850 than they had in 1780.
A.2. The Steam Engine
Another key invention of the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine, invented by James Watt in 1763, to pump water out of mines. The steam engine was used to raise minerals from mines, provide heat for smelting iron ore, and drive machines in textile mills.
B. Mineral Sources of Energy
Until the eighteenth century, transporta tion of goods was powered by humans or animals. Organic sources of fuel were