I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
They recorded eclipses and they were able to predict future eclipses. They named the twelve divisions of the Zodiacs, divided the northern sky into constellation and gave their present names. Their priest recorded planetary motions especially those of Venus, geometry and mathematics were highly developed by these people. There were evidences of multiplication tables and tables of square and cubes. They created standards for measuring length and weight, as well as time.
They did not develop their knowledge of astronomy to the extent of the Babylonians. However they had devised a calendar of 365 days. They were more interested in medicine than astronomy. The great pyramids and papyri showed that they excelled in engineering and mathematical skills.
C. Greek Science
The Greeks made their greatest contributions to the fields of astronomy, mathematics, botany, physics and medicine.
D. Science in Alexandria
Alexander the Great was the famous student of Aristotle. He carried with him the Greek civilization to all places where he visited and the most famous of these settlements was Alexandria. Alexandria was the scientific center of the world between 300 B.C. to 400 A.D. Alexander also founded the great museum and library in Egypt.
E. Dark Age
In the 4th century A.D., hordes of barbarians from the north overran the Roman Empire, destroying most of the intellectual activities. The resulting chaos lasted for 600 years. The Christian Church survived this ordeal. There was a continued interest in Astronomy and revival of the interest in Alchemy and Medicine.
F. Western Science
Very few paid attention to science. There was only a change when two influential theologians and philosophers: Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas urged that knowledge can be obtained through two distinct channels of faith and natural reason, which have led into the complete separation of science and theology.
G. Modern Science
This period is associated with name like N. Copenicus who theorized a heliocentric system in which the planets moves around the sun; J. Kepler who proposed the Laws of Planetary Motions; Galileo discovered the telescope; J. Newton proposed the Law of Gravitation; and John Dalton developed his Atomic Theory. In 1895, the Atomic Age started in physics and chemistry, while in 1957, the Russians launched the Sputnik into orbit around the earth and began the Space Age.
II. PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS
A. Metric System
The decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram as units of length, capacity, and weight or mass.
The measurement of the extent of something along its greatest dimension. The basic unit of length in the metric system is the meter. The meter is equal to 39.37 inches.
The extent of a surface or plane figure as measured in square units. The common unit of area in the metric system is the square centimetre (cm. 2).
Volume is the space occupied by a material or object. Volume is measured in units that reflect a three-dimensional form, e.g. cubic meters, cubic feet, cubic miles. Volume can be determined by direct measurement or by displacement (as in a liquid). The volume of a gas will vary by its pressure, and liquid and solid volumes normally increase (somewhat) with increased temperature, reflecting a decreased density.
Refers to the quantity of matter in a body.
Refers to the gravitational attraction on a body.
The basic metric unit of mass which is equal to 0.035 ounce.
The mass per unit volume of a substance under specified conditions of pressure and temperature.
The degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. Measured on the Celcius scale.
A form of energy associated with the motion of atoms or molecules and capable of being transmitted through solid and fluid media by conduction,...
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