he Name: Brittany Barnes
Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology
2. Distinguish between the activities of anatomists and physiologists. Anatomists deal with the structure (morphology) of the body parts. This includes the shapes, forms, and placement of body organs and appendages. Physiologists deal with the functions of body parts, what the body parts do, and how this is accomplished. 3. How does a biological structure’s form determine its function? Give an example. The functional role will depend upon the manner in which the part is constructed. The human hand with its long, jointed fingers makes it possible for human beings to grasp things. 4. List and describe the ten characteristics of life.
Movement is the ability to self-initiate position changes of either the entire organism or a part of the organism, externally from place to place and/or internally, such as in peristalsis. Responsiveness refers to the ability of an organism to detect changes either within itself or the environment surrounding it and then react to these changes. Growth generally refers to an increase in body size without important changes to its general shape. Reproduction is the process of making a new organism, as in parents producing offspring. It also discusses the process whereby cells can produce others like themselves to take the place of damaged or destroyed cells. Respiration refers to the process of obtaining oxygen, using the obtained oxygen in release of energy from foods, and removing waste gases that are produced in the process. Digestion is the chemical change of ingested foods into simpler substances that can be taken in and used by body parts. Absorption is the passage of digested substances through membranes 5. Define metabolism.
The totality of chemical changes that occur within body parts. 6. List and describe five requirements of organisms.
Water, the most abundant substance in the body, is required for many metabolic processes. It provides the environment for the metabolic processes to take place and then transports substances within the body. It is also important in the process of regulating body temperature. Food is the substances that provide the body with the necessary chemical to sustain life, in addition to water. These chemicals are used in a variety of ways by the body. Oxygen, which makes up about one-fifth of air, is used in the process of releasing energy from food substances. Heat, a form of energy, is a product of metabolic reactions. The rate at which these reactions occur is partly governed by the amount of heat present. Pressure is a state in which a force is applied to something. Atmospheric pressure is an important role in breathing. Hydrostatic pressure, the pressure of fluid, plays an important role in the circulatory system. 7. Explain how the idea of homeostasis relates to the five requirements you listed in item 6. Homeostasis refers to the stable internal environment of an organism. In human beings, if the requirements listed above become unstable, the body will react in certain ways to regain its stable internal environment. An example would be sweating to help decrease body temperature. 8. How are body temperature, blood pressure and blood glucose concentration controlled? Homeostasis is maintained in each of these situations by a self-regulating control mechanism that can receive signals about changes away from the normal set points and cause reactions that return conditions to normal. 9. In what ways do homeostatic mechanisms act by negative feedback? Homeostatic mechanisms detect changes away from the normal state. This stimulates responses in the opposite directions, which are called negative responses. This process is called negative feedback. 10. How does the human body illustrate the levels of anatomical organization? The basic unit of structure and function in the human body is the microscopic cell. These cells...
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