The history、present status and the future outlook of the computer language development Abstract
For the convenience of human beings to better control computers, people created various kinds of programming tools for computer programs, and computer language is one of them. In the last few decades, under the promotion of the development of computer hardware, Internet and operating systems, computer language developed rapidly, from the low-level languages to thousands of high-level languages which are still being updated and changing. This essay analyses the past and present status and developmental tendencies of computer language.
The history、present status and the future outlook of the computer language development The introduction of the information superhighway during the Clinton administration meant a giant leap in the development history of computer language. It is now widely used in a variety of ways as well as in many settings, and looks set to reduce the demand for human operators. So better knowing the history, present status and the future outlook of the computer language development will add to our understanding of it and help us develop future computer technology. In 1940s, when computers just came into the world, the programmers had to control computers manually. At that time, computers were too expensive for ordinary people to afford them. That being the case, it was difficult to figure out a convenient way to better control computers. However, Konrad Zuse, an engineer from Germany, did succeed in solving the problem. That was to use the programming language to control the computer. A few years later, though the computer price dropped down greatly, the programs became more and more complex. That was to say, the programming time became far more important than the running time. Then a newly integrated and visible programming environment came into being. It could considerably cut down the time and money. With the birth of the structured high-level languages, like C, PASCAL and FORTRAN, programmers can do their jobs at a more abstract level, instead at the machine level（Lu and Fu 30）;( Parsons and Oja 50). Typically, computer languages can be classified into three types: machine language, assembly language and high-level language.(Si 10) Machine language is a set of instructions, which consists of binary codes (0 and 1) and can be directly recognized and implemented by computers. It is the computer designers that developed such function on the basis of hardware. Machine language is flexible, fast and can be directly implemented. To write programs with machine language, first of all, programmers should remember the meanings of all the instructions and codes, as well as the status of working unit used in each step of the compiling process; on top of that, they should also be capable of coping with every instruction and the storage allocation, input and output of data. This is tedious work, the time taken in the programming is always as dozens of or even hundred times much as that used in the process of running. What’s worse, the codes of program are all 0 and 1; as a result, it is completely unintuitive, hard to be transplanted and easily goes wrong. Owing to that, nowadays most programmers have stopped using this kind of language, except the professionals in some computer manufacture factories. In order to overcome the difficulties that machine language is hard to be read, written and remembered and errors could always happen when programming, people replace the complex code instructions with some English abbreviations, letters, numbers which have the same or familiar meaning, and so forth. Then, assembly language came out. As the mnemonic symbols, such as Mov, Add, are put into use to help programing, to some extent, the process got simplified and retained the flexibility of machine language. The mnemonic symbols, not like binary codes, cannot be directly...
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