SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS AND BUSINESS STUDIES
DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY AND SECURITY STUDIES
BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT
LECTURE NOTES ON PENOLOGY AND CRIME PREVENTION
DENNIS MIANO GICHOBI
Chapter One: Introduction to Penology
Definition of Penology
Penology is a section of criminology that deals with the philosophy and practice of various societies in their attempts to repress criminal activities, and satisfy public opinion via an appropriate treatment regime for persons convicted of criminal offenses. The main focus is on punishment and penal institutions, such as the prison, and their possible justifications. The Oxford English Dictionary defines penology as "the study of punishment of crime and prison management", and in this sense it is equivalent with corrections. Penology is concerned with the effectiveness of those social processes devised and adopted for the prevention of crime, via the repression or inhibition of criminal intent via the fear of punishment. The study of penology therefore deals with the treatment of prisoners and the subsequent rehabilitation of convicted criminals. It also encompasses aspects of probation (rehabilitation of offenders in the community) as well as penitentiary science relating to the secure detention and retaining of offenders committed to secure institutions. Penology is a multidisciplinary subject that aims to study and evaluate the application of penal sanctions to wrongdoers. It has broadly focuses on the justifications, characteristics and effectiveness of penal institutions. Constitutive Penology
Constitutive penology is an extension of postmodernist constitutive criminological theory. Its proponents argue that societal responses to crime are interrelated with the wider society, particularly through “crime and punishment” talk.
Constitutive penologists call for
(1) the integration of prison and related penological practices with society, (2) a demystification of the penological society,
(3) the development of more holistic responses to criminal harm. The new penology is neither about punishing nor about rehabilitating individuals. It is about identifying and managing unruly groups. It is concerned with the rationality not of individual behaviour or even community organization, but of managerial processes. Its goal is not to eliminate crime but to make it tolerable through systematic coordination. Penology concerns many topics and theories, including those concerning prisons (Prison reform, Prisoner abuse, Prisoners' rights, and Recidivism), as well as theories of the purposes of punishment (such as Deterrence, Rehabilitation, Retribution, and Utilitarianism). AIMS of Penology
Penologists are interested in the responses to human wrongdoing and, specifically, in the practices, forms and evolution of the punishment and social controls that exist in contemporary society. _ Penologists focus on the criminal justice system and develop arguments concerning its legitimacy and justification. _ Although united in their focus of investigation, penologists come from a wide range of disciplines, including psychology, geography, history, philosophy, social policy, sociology and criminology.interalationship _ In general, penologists look to understand the deployment of penalties within their social, historical, economic and political contexts. _ When thinking about the criminal justice system, penologists use their ‘imagination’ and do not take the practices, or even existence, of punishment at a straightforward or common-sense level. _ Unlike practitioners, who are concerned almost exclusively with the operational practices, laws and procedures shaping punishments and their apparent effectiveness, penologists also ask broader questions concerning who we punish, for what offence, when and how. _ Penologists are interested in the justifications of penalties and social sanctions, and...
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