The History of Marketing Thought
This reading assignment is from Dr. Chuck Hermans‟ PhD work. He is a professor at Missouri State University and granted permission to use it for this course on health marketing. A key observation to notice throughout this reading assignment is that in the history of business (or commercial) marketing there has been no reference to health, prevention, wellness or medicine as products or services to motivate people to buy or to sell or market to people. An important concept to note however, from the article is that marketers evolved to applying theories of behavior, the same as health educator‟s use. Among these are concepts borrowed from established disciplines, such as psychology and sociology and suggesting that marketing is a social science. Please note that the bold text are from the original text from Dr. Hermans. The article begins now.
Bartels, Robert (1976) “The History of Marketing Thought,” 2nd edition, Highlights selected by Dr. Hermans are from chapters 1,2,3,4,9,10,11,12,13,and 14. Accessed on Sep 18, 2009. Available at http://www.faculty.missouristate.edu/c/ChuckHermans/Bartels.htm Chapter 1: The Meaning of Marketing
The establishment of a market economy wrought marked changes in the social and economic structure. A new attitude toward business revolutionized the economy of the country and that revolutionary element was identified by the term „marketing.‟ Historical accounts of trade lead one to conclude that marketing has always existed. Was the original use of the term marketing merely an application of a new name to an old practice? One theory is that language is an invention of man, an adornment. The other explanation of the origin of language is that it is inseparable from reason. Accordingly, man‟s language has developed as his thoughts have developed. By marketing was first meant “that combination of factors which had to be taken into consideration prior to the undertaking of cer6tain selling or promotional activities.” The essence of marketing was the combination of factors. Blindness to and ignorance of that combination of factors is the reason for the absence of terms equivalent to marketing in other languages. Marketing must be regarded not merely as a business practice, but as a social institution. Marketing is essentially a means of meeting and satisfying certain needs of people. It is a highly developed and refined system of thought and practice characteristic of a period in the development of market economy. A latent presumption in the practice of marketing has been that marketing gives to society more than society gives to it. The fact is that marketing is but one of several means of accomplishing a social objective. Polyani explains that this objective is accomplished by societies in different ways: reciprocity redistribution economy trade, and the market. Reciprocity is a social system wherein material needs are met through exchange carried on between individuals and groups in the form of gift-giving. Redistribution is a social system involving the assembling of goods at a point from which they are redistributed by a duly constituted authority. Householding, or oecomomia is a social system accomplishing what marketing does in our society. It involves production for use, not for exchange; Self-sufficiency of trade. Trade is a form of exchange which may be carried on in the absence of markets. It involved prices, in the form of equivalencies, 2
determined by treaty or administrative decision and not by behavior in a market place. The market is the fifth type of social system supplying society’s material needs. Originally, the market was a local institution. It was entirely separate from the trade carried on outside the country. The market supplied the common people with daily provisions. From the start, the paramount importance of consumption has been fundamental to marketing thought . Moreover, throughout the history of marketing during this century, and...
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