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The History of Journalism in the Philippines Goes Back to the 16th Century 3

By nascagahastian Jun 21, 2011 2645 Words
Early Years
The history of journalism in the Philippines goes back to the 16th century, the same period when England and Europe were starting on the proliferation of community newspapers. It was in the year 1637 when the "Father of Filipino Printing", Tomas Pinpin, launched the first Philippine newsletter called "Successos Felices" (Fortunate Events). The publication was written in Spanish and contained a 14-page report on current events. In 1799, following Pinpin's debut in printing, he again came up with his Hojas Volantes or "flying sheets". It was titled "Aviso Al Publico" (Notices to the Public), which served the Spaniards and had a role comparative to a "town crier." Surprisingly, it took a gap of a little more than a decade before the first actual newspaper, "Del Superior Govierno," was launched by Gov. Fernandez del Forgueras on August 8, 1811. It was the so-called first regularly issued publication that reported developments about Spain and Europe. It was also the first newspaper that included in its layout the name, date and place of its publication. Unfortunately, the paper only came up with 15 issues within its years of operation from 1811 to 1832. Due to the constraints of the church and government at that time, 35 years had lapsed before the Philippine press continued on its development. From the first regular publication, then came the first daily newspaper on December 1, 1846 called "La Esperanza." The paper, edited by Felipe Lacorte and Evaristo Calderon, lasted only for three years. However, it gave way to the birth of other dailies such as "La Estrella" in 1847 and "Diario de Manila" in 1848. Diario's existence was significant because it monopolized the market a year after its launch and became the government's daily organ in 1852. It was renamed to "Boletin Oficial de Filipinas" which later ceased circulation by Royal Order in 1860. The paper reappeared with Felipe del Pan as its editor and encountered another official decree that led to its permanent closure on February 19, 1898. There had been a surplus of newspapers but most of them talked about the same issues and had almost similar formats. Until 1862, a Tagalog publisher, Mariano Sevilla, founded El Catolico Filipino. It was considered the first Philippine religious newspaper, unexpectedly not managed by the Church. It was also a paper which seriously dealt with the problems of Filipinos. Another first in the history is El Porvenir Filipino founded in 1865. It was the newspaper that pioneered in two-edition dailies. Later it was followed by Revista Mercantil which came out the same year. In the succeeding years there had been attempts to create a more liberal and mass appealing press. The year 1887 marked the beginning of a more opinionated journalism in the Philippines. It officially begun on April 1, 1887 with the birth of La Opinion. According to historians, "it was the first paper to defy the friars and campaigned for the ouster of the religious…" Period of Revolution

In February 19, 1889 La Solidaridad came out as the "mouthpiece of the revolution." It operated with its policies "to work peacefully for social and economic reforms, to expose the real plight of the Philippines and to champion liberalism and democracy." The staff of the paper was comprised of known personas like Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Andres Bonifacio, Pio Valenzuela and Graciano Lopez-Jaena. The later became the founding editor until he was succeeded by del Pilar on October 31, 1889. The paper ceased publication on November 15, 1895 which was then followed by the death of its second and last editor in the early 1896. From the reformists' newspapers, the secret society of rebels or better known as the Katipunan also came up with their own publication. They established "Ang Kalayaan" (Liberty) on January 1, 1896. It was edited by Pio Valenzuela, Emilio Jacinto and Andres Bonifacio. Unfortunately, it only came out with one issue when a Katipunero betrayed the secrecy of the paper. Nevertheless, its existence increased the membership of the society to 30,000. Other revolutionary papers that emerged in those times were El Heraldo de Iloilo on January 1, 1898 and La Libertad on June 20, 1898. Also in the same year, La Independencia was founded on September 3 by Gen. Antonio Luna and Fernando Ma. Guerrero. It was staffed by then famous writers: Rafael Palma, Cecilio Apostol, Epifanio de los Santos and Judge Jose Abreu. It folded up in January 1900 when the American decided to stay in the island and Filipino bias presses one by one closed down. When the Americans were slowly gaining control over the island several so-called Fil-American War newspapers then cropped up. Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, in his effort to unify his armies, put up his own revolutionary organ called "El Heraldo de la Revolucion" on September 28, 1898. Likewise, with the arrival of more American fleets on August 13, 1898, American editors aboard Admiral Dewey's flagship came up with the paper, Bounding Billow. Succeeding the Billow, newspapers such as American Soldier, Freedom, and The American also came to existence. Although Gen Emilio Aguinaldo and his revolutionary government proclaimed Philippine Independence in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and established the First Philippine Republic in Malolos, Bulacan on January 23, 1899, President William McKinley and Admiral George Dewey planned to take over the Philippines and forced the surrender of Spanish forces inside Intramuros. With the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898 and the Treaty with Spain on November 7, 1900, the United States of America acquired the sovereignty over the Philippines. As the Spanish-American War was being fought, La Democracia, the first Filipino newspaper that recognized American sovereignty in the country, urged the Filipino people to accept the new government and to help heal the wounds of war. Edited by Trinidad Pardo de Tavera, it was the official publication of the pro-American Partido Federalista, the first political party organized on December 23, 1900 by 125 Filipino illustrados. Besides La Independencia and El Heraldo

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dela Revolucion, other Filipino newspapers were also published as the Americans established their military government in the country. Among these was La Patria, the newspaper that openly championed freedom and independence and directly challenged La Democracia. Published by Pablo Ocampo and edited by Rafael Palma and Aurelio Tolentino, it was closed by Gen Arthur McArthur, the father of Gen Douglas McArthur9. The closure of La Patria and the assertion of American military rule did not dampen the newspaper industry. Unfazed, Pablo Ocampo published La Libertad and continued to fight for freedom and independence. As a result, the American military authorities banned the newspaper, and its publisher was exiled to Guam for two years.

January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. style="text-align:justify;">           Well, I believe that the satirical nature and feature of different writings, journals and editorials during the Spanish Era sprung from the fact that Spanish authoritative rule had restricted the freedom of every Filipino writer at that time to express their opinions, perspectives, and views. Rather sarcastically speaking, Filipino journalism during the Spanish colonization remained static and constrained for Filipino writers would end up being punished, as if they have committed a very heinous crime, for writing contents that Spaniards think are libelous and rebellious.  And as a result, a lot of Filipinos were inclined to reading the works or materials of these authors because the works expose the maltreatment of the Spaniards through, rather enthusiastically, interesting write-ups.            In order to fully understand the interests of Filipino writers to write during the Spanish era, it is best that we take a look back at the historical accounts of Philippine Journalism. The ultimate quest for freedom and independence started in Barcelona, Spain when La Solidaridad, a fortnightly abridged by Graciano Lopez-Jaena, financed by Dr Pablo Rianzares, and supported by the Comité de Propaganda, was published on February 15, 1889. With the policy to champion democracy and liberalism, to expose the real dilemma of the country, and to work peacefully for economic and social reforms, the newspaper published not only news, but also articles and essays about the Philippines and its people, and possibly and secretly publishing articles elaborating the abuses of Spanish friars. As editor of the newspaper, Lopez-Jaena did not receive any monetary compensation, but was given free meals, lodging, clothing, and modest pocket money. In 1891, he collected his articles and speeches and incorporated them in his book entitled Discursos y Articulos Varios.           In writing for the newspaper, Filipino reformists used pen names: Antonio Luna, Taga-Ilog; Jose Ma. Panganiban, Jomapa; Domingo Gomez, Romero Franco; Clemente Jose Zulueta, Juan Totoó; Jose Rizal, Laong Laan and Dimas Alang; Marcelo del Pilar, Kupang, Plaridel, and Maitalaga; Mariano Ponce, Naning, Tikbalang, and Kalipulako, Eduardo Lete, Pedro Paterno, Jose Alejandrino, Isabelo delos Reyes, Antonio Ma Regidor, among others. Ferdinand Blumentritt5, a Bohemian scholar, and Miguel Morayta, a Spanish historian, also worked for the newspaper.           On October 31, 1889, Lopez-Jaena passed the editorship to Marcelo del Pilar, who left his family in the Philippines, went to Spain, and literally gave his life for the newspaper. Del Pilar became the moving spirit of the reform movement and contacted progressive Europeans who would fight side by side with Filipino reformists. Two months and three days later, that was on January 18, 1896, Ang Kalayaan, the official revolutionary newspaper of the Kataastaasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People) founded by Andres Bonifacio and Emilio Jacinto, was published under the editorship of Pio Valenzuela. Printed with 2 000 copies, it exposed the inhumane and indignities of civil guards and Spanish friars and called for a bloody revolution against Spain. To deceive the Spaniards, the founders and the editor made it appeared that the newspaper was printed in Yokohoma, Japan, that the Japanese were in sympathy with the Filipino people, and that the editor was Marcelo del Pilar, who at that time was in Madrid and at the eve of his death.           The first issue of the newspaper contained a supposed editorial of Del Pilar, which Jacinto actually wrote. It greeted the people and wished them solidarity and independence and offered them his life and all he have for the good of the Filipino people. There was also an article by Jacinto and Valenzuela’s Catuiran, which described the cruelties of the Spanish friars and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte on a helpless village lieutenant. It also contained Bonifacio’s Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa that expressed the oppression of Spain and encourage the Filipino people to liberate their country; and Jacinto’s Manifesto that urged the Filipino people to revolt against Spain and to secure their liberty.           Perhaps this is why there were quite a significant number of Filipinos during the Spanish colonization where their interests were caught because of the satirical nature of the writings of different authors. Even until today, writings and unpublished works and editorials of those authors are still highly interesting especially to those who are taking history as their academic work. Furthermore, these writings are still available for reference for those who seek enlightenment with regards to the historical accounts and influences most necessarily in the field of journalism.

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Best Answer - Chosen by Voters
Look in the real world.
Decode this lyrics ' You'll see "
"Another one bite the dust"
Get wedge in between the printing press that roll out the other end with a heap of dust. While newsreader ended up with mouthful of dust in communicating with hand signs in time. Luke 21.30-36
Genesis 11.1-3-9
Luke 6.39-40,41-45,46-49
Luke 9.25,55-56,60
Luke 8.10,17
Revelation 22.13-17
Matt 22.17-21,32
What do you think?
decoded from the missing x-files.
* 2 years ago
* Report Abuse
67% 2 Votes
Other Answers (3)
* Aref H4
History teaches the next generation many things.

But the most practical subject is survival.

There is certain wisdom in launching a career for the betterment of ones life, not causing it's early termination.

The killing or persecution of journalists who exposes the truth without a sufficient political and media clout to back them up, may have stunted the growth of this profession in the country.

And yet, heroes still proliferate, like comrades to whom the banner is passed. * 2 years ago
* Report Abuse
0% 0 Votes
* Phoenix: Devil's Advocate
The Philippines prides itself on its democracy and nowhere is it felt more than in its diversified and highly opinionated media. Filipino journalists are passionate about their craft and many have died practicing it.

The freedoms the media here enjoys today did not come easy. During 14 years of martial law under the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos the local media was controlled by the state. If Marcos didn’t like what a newspaper was saying about him the paper was simply closed down or given to one of his cronies.

Even so, a free press of sorts managed to flourish underground and was given the name mosquito press - it was irritating and had a sting to it.

The assassination of popular opposition figure Benigno Aquino in 1983, covered by the underground press and foreign media, was ignored by the Marcos press with the exception of one paper that ran a story headlined "Man Killed by Lightning at Funeral". It was true but the paper failed to say it was Aquino’s funeral which was attended by thousands of ordinary Filipinos.

After Marcos was thrown out in February 1986, and Aquino’s widow took over, the constitution was rewritten and, in it, press freedom enshrined. But journalism in this country is still a tough business.

In the 23 years since that revolution, some 98 journalists around the country have been murdered, targeted for their line of work. During the 14 years of martial law, it's estimated around 35 were killed - though no one was keeping careful track of the numbers at the time.

Today the Philippines has the reputation of being one of the worst places, after Iraq, for journalists to work. The comparison with Iraq is a stretch, but journalism is a risky profession here.

In the Philippines many of the journalists murdered have been provincial radio broadcasters whose opinions carry a lot of weight especially among poor Filipinos where radio is the main medium for news and information.

Some of these broadcasters have become a major thorn in the side for local politicians. Others abuse their position to settle scores - a cause for concern for the National Union of Journalists Philippines (NUJP). 

Philippines have a libel and defamation laws but a bullet costs a lot less than a lawyer." * 2 years ago
* Report Abuse
33% 1 Vote
* Noname
The press people said.. "This is a free country". So they felt free to criticize(even some below the belt) the government for its shortcomings. They felt they are invincible, they cannot be touched because they are the press.

Then came present day, one by one. day by day. One will suddenly disappear and after a couple of days will be found covered with a newspaper, the very paper they used to express their freedom(?). * 2 years ago

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