From ancient Egypt to modern America people have attempted to control the human reproductive process. Human beings have long tried to stop the conception and birth of offspring for physical, emotional, social and economic reasons. Throughout history the actual thought behind the various methods have not changed much as evidence for barrier methods, abortions, withdrawal methods etc. can be traced back thousands of years. Egyptian papyruses dating from around 1850 B.C. show recipes for vaginal suppositories called pessaries thought to be effective in preventing a woman from conceiving. Ancient Romans used birth control because they did not feel that hoards of children fit with their highly civilized urban lifestyles (Clemmitt, 2005). In 200 A.D. Greek gynecologist Seranus concluded that women were fertile during a period known as ovulation. However, during a period known as ovulation occurred during menstruation Oyler, 2003). In order to prevent unwanted pregnancy Seranus suggested that women smear olive oil, pomegranate pulp, ginger , or tobacco juice around the vagina in order to kill sperm. He also suggested drinking water that blacksmiths used to cool metals, and jumping backwards seven times after intercourse to dislodge sperm. In Europe from the 800s to the 1900s European peasants wished only to expand their families during times of prosperity. Women of the time would attempt to prevent pregnancy using agents they called douches and purges which contained salt, honey, oil, lead mint juice and cabbage seed (Clemmitt, 2005). Birth control methods were taboo but accepted until the 1860s when care for women began to leave the hands of midwives and enter the hands of male doctors most of whom did not believe in a woman's right to prevent or terminate a pregnancy (Gordon, 1976). Early 20th century birth control included withdrawal methods, primitive condoms, the rhythm method, extended lactation, abstinence, abortion, and surgical sterilization. While contraception was not widely available to women of the time, the repeal of anti-birth control legislation brought about more reproductive freedom in the second half of the 20th century. Mass production of condoms, the introduction of the birth control pill and emergency contraception allowed women greater control over reproduction. While it can be agreed upon that birth control methods put control in the hands of women, historically the issue has been surrounded by controversy as the debate over the ethics of reproduction continues to thrive. Ancient evidence suggests that women have attempted to abort unwanted pregnancies both alone and with the help of other women. There is evidence of potions known to cause termination of pregnancy. One notable potion called for a paste of mashed ants , foam from camels mouths, and tail hairs of black tail deer dissolved in bear fat (Clemmitt, 2005). Modern recipes from the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the use of turpentine castor oil, tansy tea, quinine water in which a rusty nail has been soaked, Epsom salts and gin with iron filings, rosemary, lavender and opium (Clemmitt, 2005). Aside from these potions, historically women have tried methods like severe exercise and heavy lifting to terminate unwanted pregnancies. History shows that prior to the 19th century abortion practices while considered taboo and rarely discussed were not considered sinful (Clemmitt, 2005). During this time there were no laws prohibiting women from taking actions to terminate early pregnancy. Also during this time both the protestant and Catholic permitted the termination of pregnancy until "quickening" , the time when it is believed that the fetus begins life. (Oyler, 2003) In the 1870s it was estimated that there were 200 full time abortionists practicing in New York City. At the time more women died during childbirth that during abortion procedures (Gordon, 1976). By the first half of the 19th century many states had made...
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Gordon, Linda. Woman 's Body, Woman 's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America. . New York : Penguin Books, 1976.
Oyler M.D., Julie. "History of Birth Control." University of Chicago Hospitals. 18 Mar. 2003. 9 Dec. 2006 .
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