The historical progression of African American community was accompanied by the permanent struggle of African Americans for civil rights and equal opportunities. The Civil War targeted at the liberation of African Americans, who were enslaved by the dominant white Americans. However, the idealistic struggle of the Civil War did not bring a consistent improvement of the position of African Americans. Instead, African Americans had to spend over a hundred years in the permanent struggle for their rights and equal opportunities with the white population to partially realize ideals of the Civil War both white and African Americans had been fighting for during the war. In fact, after the end of the Civil War, African Americans were liberated, but the change of their social status did not bring a considerable relief for them because they still suffered from economic and political oppression. The period from 1865-1876 was probably the most dramatic period in the history of African Americans because it is during this time their dreams of the liberation and new life had reached the apogee and it was by the end of this period their dreams had been totally ruined. At first glance, the progress in the position of African Americans was obvious. After the Civil War African Americans were freed, the 13th amendment of the US Constitution, ratified in 1865, outlawed slavery in the US, while the 14th amendment, ratified in 1868, granted full US citizenship to African Americans Moreover, in 1870, the 15th amendment extended the right to vote to black males (Franklin, 2001). However, such a progress proved to be illusory and changes were rather formal than real since, the real position of African American population had failed to improve consistently after the end of the Civil War and the decade to follow. In fact, African Americans were constantly oppressed, their election rights were limited, numerous frauds deprived them of an opportunity to influence political life of the...
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