1. “The only absolute essential element is that change is directed at a process rather than a function.” Discuss.
The above statement speaks to the fact that:

a) Business re-engineering looks at the business as a whole instead of a particular department in order to establish how the functional processes can be amalgated to improve the business and give the company a competitive edge. b) Inorder to achieve a defined business outcome a set of logically related tasks must be performed. These tasks are termed processes. c) Change is ongoing. It is not a once off project that is taken up over a defined period of time. We live in a changing environment thus the need to reevaluate the changing business circumstances and match or exceed that. d) Business re-engineering should focus on processes and not be limited to thinking about the organizations.

2) ‘Change was preemptive competitive strike in the Hallmark experience.” Discuss.

A preemptive competitive strike is a strategy that protects a company against potential loss on market share by strengthening the company’s position with new products and other tactics.

The concept that is highlighted above is to attack before one is attacked and be proactive in one’s approach. The case study clearly highlights the fact that Hallmark’s re-engineering process wasn’t in response to any external threat. To quote, “Hallmark was the only company that was doing just fine when it decided to re-engineer – not in response to any life-threatening problem but in a farsighted effort to keep such problems out of the company’s future”.

It is further stated in the text that Hallmark dominates the US market and it faces no threat from non-US competitors.

Thus in order to ensure future sustainability and gain a competitive advantage Hallmark saw the need to take up re-engineering.

3) What kind of major change was Hallmark looking for?
Hallmark was looking to change the product life cycle time,

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