Fossil Fuels are a non-renewable energy source. They are found in Earth’s depositions made over millions and millions years ago and are called non-renewable because they can’t be used again once they are spent.
There are three major forms of fossil fuels: coal, oil and natural gas.
Coal is made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and some amounts of sulphur
-Three main types of coal:
• Anthracite : the hardest and has the most carbon in it, meaning higher energy content
• Lignite: softest, low in carbon, but high in oxygen & hydrogen
• Bituminous: All of the above found in similar amounts
Coal is mined out of the ground using various methods. Some coal mines are dug by sinking vertical or horizontal shafts deep underground, and coal miners travel by elevators or trains deep underground to dig the coal.
Other coal is mined in strip mines where huge steam shovels strip away the top layers above the coal. The layers are then restored after the coal is taken away.
The coal is then shipped by train and boats and even in pipelines. In pipelines, the coal is ground up and mixed with water to make what 's called slurry. This is then pumped many miles through pipelines.
At the other end, the coal is used to fuel power plants and other factories.
Oil is the second main type of Fossil Fuels, and is formed 300 million years ago, same as coal did. It has been used for more than 5,000-6,000 years.
Oil contains carbon, same as all Fossil Fuels and is found on the bottom of the sea. How?
Well, the carbon found on the sea bottom, eventually turned into oil under great pressure and heat. As the earth changed and moved and folded pockets where oil and natural gas can be found were formed.
To find oil and natural gas, companies drill through the earth to the deposits deep below the surface. The oil and natural gas are then pumped from below the ground by oil rigs (like
Bibliography: 1- http://interestingenergyfacts.blogspot.com/2010/08/coal-introduction-and-facts.html 2- http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=fossil-fuels-without-the-fossils 3- http://themarcellusshale.com/utility-borough-deal-a-step-toward-expanding-shale-gas-access/ 4- http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/ 5- http://denmark.dk/en/green-living/strategies-and-policies/independent-from-fossil-fuels-by-2050/ 6- http://www.mnn.com/earth-matters/wilderness-resources/stories/the-13-largest-oil-spills-in-history 7- http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/energy/oilandgas/9682182/Gulf-of-Mexico-oil-spill-BP-workers-charged-with-manslaughter-are-scapegoats.html 8- http://www.themarknews.com/articles/4923-the-politics-of-fossil-fuel/#.UaxMeEBgfX4