Human Growth and Development
The First Two Years
The first two years after birth, through the developing person has to do with three domains biosocial, cognitive and psychosocial. There are many different theories regarding the first two years. The three most influential works on growth and development was done by Piaget, Freud and Erikson. Piaget’s theory was called cognitive development or the sensorimotor stage. This is when the child interacts with his surroundings through physical action such as pushing, sucking, grabbing, etc. Freud’s theory of development is psychosexual. He proposed three stages in psychosexual development: oral, anal, phallic. Erikson’s theory is psychosocial. From birth until about one and a half the child is going through the oral sensory stage. More about these theories and discussing the first two years of a child’s life will be discussed further on in this essay.
The first two years of a child’s life is always the fastest. The baby quadrupled in weight, grown taller by more that a foot, and sprouted a new head of hair. A change in attitude will definitely be recognizable as well (Berger, pg. 121). Biosocial Development covers the growth and developments that take place in the body, as well as the biological, social, cultural, and environmental elements affecting this growth and development. During the first 2 years of life, biosocial development occurs at a rapid pace. When a child is born the head is really the heaviest and biggest part of its body. Baby fat is stored to keep the brain nourished if teething or the sniffles interfere with eating. (Berger, pg.124) It is always good to know a baby’s percentile. Percentile is a point on a ranking scale of 0 to 100 (Berger, pg.124). It will tell you if the baby is a normal weight at birth. In order for the brain to mature it has to go through something called experience-expectant brain functions. An infant is expected to have this is order to develop normally....
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