The Evolution Theory
Evolutionists have failed in every endeavor to prove that evolution or evolutionary processes could have taken place. By Muneeb Baig, (Grade 10)
Posted: 15 Safar 1423, 28 April 2002
The modern theory of evolution was developed by Charles Darwin, an amateur English naturalist, in the 19th century. He proposed that all of the millions of species of organisms present today, including humans, evolved slowly over billions of years, from a common ancestor by way of natural selection. This idea said that the individuals best adapted to their habitat passed on their traits to their offspring. Over time these advantageous qualities accumulated and transformed the individual into a species entirely different from its ancestors (e.g. birds from reptiles, whales from bears, humans from apes, etc). The Evolutionist Perspective on the History of Earth
According to the theory of evolution, earth was formed 4.6 billion years ago. Its atmosphere probably contained little free oxygen, but a lot of water vapor and other gases, such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen, and was extremely hot. By 3.9 billion years ago, earth cooled enough for water vapor to condense, allowing millions of years of rain that formed earth's oceans. The Origin of Life
In the 1930s, a Russian scientist, Alexander Oparin, hypothesized that life began in the oceans on early earth between 3.9 to 3.5 billion years ago. He suggested that first, simple organic molecules containing carbon formed. Energy from the sun, lightning, and earth's heat triggered chemical reactions to produce small organic molecules from substances present in the atmosphere. These molecules were organized by chance into complex organic molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids that are essential to life. The Formation of Amino Acids – Miller's Experiment
Attempting to prove Oparin's hypothesis, two American scientists, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey, carried out an experiment in which they attempted to simulate early earth conditions according to evolutionists. They mixed water vapor with ammonia, methane, and hydrogen gases. They then sent an electric current that simulated lightning through the mixture. Then they cooled the mixture of gases, producing a liquid that simulated rain. After a week, they collected the liquid in a flask and analyzed the chemicals therein. They found that three amino acids (amino acids constitute the basic elements of proteins, which are the building blocks of living cells) were synthesized. This experiment aroused great excitement among evolutionists at that time and was claimed as proof for Oparin's hypothesis. However, there were serious problems with Miller's experiment. Most of the products of the experiment were right-handed amino acids. Amino acids are right-handed or left-handed. (The difference between them is the mirror-symmetry between their three-dimensional structures, which is similar to that of a person's right or left hands.) Only left-handed amino acids are suitable for life. Proteins with right-handed amino acids are useless. In addition, Miller's experiment did not reflect the primordial conditions on earth. Miller used a mechanism called a "cold trap" by which he isolated the amino acids from the environment as soon as they were formed. Had he not done so, the amino acids would have been destroyed by the conditions of their environment. Later, Miller could not even form one amino acid without using the cold trap mechanism. The gases that Miller used also were not realistic. Instead of using nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which scientists believe were present in the early atmosphere, he used methane and ammonia. Without ammonia it was impossible to synthesize the amino acids. Proteins cannot form in the oceans because the reaction in which two amino acids bond together releases a water molecule. According to the Le Châtelier Principle, it is not possible for a reaction that releases water to take place in a...
References: Diasporas. Cambridge: Perseus Books,
Trans. Donald Cress. Indianapolis: Hackett
Pub Co, 1998.
Porter & Graham, eds. The Portable Darwin. New
York: Penguin Books, 1993.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document