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The Effects of Social Network Sites on High School Students’ Social Capital

By saizenn Feb 01, 2011 2417 Words
Baco Catholic School
Baco, Oriental Mindoro

Lessons from Facebook: The Effects of Social Network Sites on High School Students’ Social Capital

By:
Paul Saimond P. Tobias
John Whindie Z. Alforo

A Semi-Thesis in English IV
Presented to :
Ms. Hilda Pura
February , 2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
* Acknowledgement…………………………………………………..……….…………….i * Dedication………………………………………………………………………………....ii CHAPTER I
* Introduction………………………………………………………..………………………1 * Statement of the Study…….……………………………………………………..10 * Problem and its Background......……………………………..……………………2 * Problem Statement………………………………………………………………… * Purpose of the Study….………………………...………………………………....8 * Definition of Terms…….……..………………………………………………….11 CHAPTER II

* Review of Related Literature………………………………………..…………………..12 * Local…………………………………………………………………………..…13 * Foreign…………………………………………….…………......………………14 * Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………………………..15 CHAPTER III

* Research Methodology Used………………………………………….………………....15 * Statistical Treatment………………………………………………………………....…..16 * Interpretation of Data ...……………………………………………….………………....16 CHAPTER IV
* Discussion ...……………………………………………………………………………..17 * Conclusions ...……………………………………………………....................................18 * Recommendations ...………………………………………………………………….….19 CHAPTER V

* References …………………………………………………………………….…………20 * Appendices……………………………………………………………………………….21

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research would not have been possible without the support and assistance of our parents, for their help given to us in order to finish this research, financial support of our parents, BCS former students for their suggestions and advice, and our computer and printer.

Lastly, this research would not have been completed without the inspiration of our love ones, our friends, and our relatives. We would like to express our sincerest gratitude.

Pipoy & Paul

-i-
DEDICATION
We would like to dedicate this research paper to our loving parents for giving us moral and financial support to do this research; they are our constant source of strength and inspiration.
Also to our love ones, our friends in Alag and in Poblacion, our relatives, and especially our English teachers, Ms. Lenningay Pascua and Ms. Hilda Pura for helping us in the time that we don’t understanding what we are going to do.

And mostly, to our God for giving us more knowledge and faith to finish this work. Pipoy & Paul

CHAPTER I
Statement of the Study: This Study is conducted to know how much is the intensity of Facebook use of some students of Baco Catholic School.

INTRODUCTION
Media use provides an important backdrop for the social, emotional, and cognitive development of youth, accounting for a large portion of their time. One type of online application that has grown rapidly in prevalence and popularity in recent years is social networking on the Internet. Social networking websites, such as Facebook, MySpace, Friendster, LiveJournal, and Bebo, are member-based Internet communities that allow users to post profile information, such as a username and photograph, and to communicate with others in innovative ways such as sending public or private online messages or sharing photos online As could be expected, researchers have begun to put to empirical test these claims, reaching a more balanced understanding of SNS. Existing research shows that young people are motivated to join these sites to keep strong ties with friends, to strengthen ties with new acquaintances, and, to a lesser degree, to meet new people online (Acquisti & Gross, 2006 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~wcohen/10-802/fixed/Acquisti_and_Gross%2C_PET_2006.html). At the same time, sites like Facebook allow them to exchange news and discuss issues, both public (e.g., the 2010 Philippine presidential election) and private (e.g., movie tastes). In this paper, we examine if social network sites, given their nature and capabilities, have the potential for creating new pathways to civic and political participation. Specifically, we use original questionnaire data to test several hypotheses regarding the influence of Facebook usage on B.C.S. high school students’ social capital, a multidimensional concept that includes life satisfaction, social trust, civic participation and political engagement. In doing so, we also aim to gain a better understanding of “who is and who is not using these sites, why and for what purposes”.

1.1. How youth use social networking sites?

Limited research is available about how adolescents and young adults interact on social networking sites. Online sites are often considered innovative and different from traditional media such as television, film, and radio because they allow direct interaction with others

1.2. Why youth use social networking sites?

Social networking sites are designed to foster social interaction in a virtual environment. In general, communication is facilitated through information posted in the profile (i.e., the user's personal page), which often includes a photograph of the member and personal information describing his or her interests, both of which provide information about one's identity. Members can view one another's profiles and can communicate through various applications similar to email or online message boards. Such interactions can potentially address many concerns of adolescence and emerging adulthood, such as the need for friendship and social feedback.

PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Defining Social Network Sites
Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, Cyworld, Bebo and other related sites are, perhaps, the best examples of networking environment, where audiences have become co-authors on interactive websites. In a similar fashion as blogs, SNS allow individuals to present themselves to other users using a variety of formats, including text and video. Just like chatting services, SNS incorporate a list of other users with whom individuals share a connection. But unlike any other web service, SNS allow individuals to make visible their list of connections to others and to traverse their social networks. Hence, more than virtual communities born online, SNS are usually online communities created and maintained to reflect offline relationships.

While the technological features of social websites are similar, the cultures that emerge around them are not. Facebook first catered to American college students before opening its doors to anyone with an Internet connection. Orkut was developed in the U.S., but at some point almost two-thirds of its users were in Brazil. Hi5 became popular in South America, while Cyworld still dominates in parts of Asia. Segmentation across social network sites is achieved on a demographic basis, too. For instance, members of aSmallWorld are by invitation only. Likewise, prospective members of BeautifulPeople are voted in according to their physical appearance. Some SNS are targeted specifically at minorities (e.g., BlackPlanet, MiGente) and religious denominations (e.g., MyChurch). Even pet owners have been targeted by social websites (e.g., Dogster, Catster). This study tackles this limitation by focusing on Facebook only.

An Overview of Facebook
Facebook was created in February 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes as a site for Harvard students only. Shortly after, it expanded to any college student with a .edu e-mail account. Between Fall2005 and Fall2006, Facebook expanded to high school networks, first, work networks, later, and, eventually, to Internet users in general. According to Netcraft’s rankings of top websites, in 2008 Facebook.com was ranked as the most visited website on the Internet in the U.S. (http://toolbar.netcraft.com/stats/topsites), with 34 million unique visitors by August 2010. As of January 2011, Facebook reported having 650 million active users (those who have returned to the site in the last 30 days), with more than half of them returning daily and spending an average of 20 minutes per day on the site (Facebook, 2011 http://social-networking-websites-review.toptenreviews.com/facebook-review.html). Like most social network sites, Facebook provides a formatted web page into which each user can enter personal information, including gender, birthday, hometown, political and religious views, e-mail and physical addresses, relationship status, activities, interests, favorite music and movies, educational background and a main personal picture. After completing their profile, users are prompted to identify others with whom they have a relationship, either by searching for registered users of Facebook or by requesting their contacts to join Facebook (usually by e-mail). Once someone is accepted as a “friend,” not only the two users’ personal profile but also their entire social networks are disclosed to each other. This allows each user to traverse networks by clicking through “friends’” profiles, so that one’s identity rapidly across other people and institutions. This capability is the backbone of Facebook and other SNS and what attracts millions of users around the world. Facebook profiles also include two types of messaging services. A private system, which is very similar to a webmail service, and a public system called “The Wall,” where “friends” leave comments to the owner of the profile that can be viewed by other users. Usually, “The Wall” contains short messages that reflect sentiments, common activities between “friends,” or call attention to external websites or events. To keep users updated about their social circles, Facebook has two features: “News Feed”, which appears on the homepage of each user, and “Mini-Feed”, which appears in each individual’s profile. “News Feed” updates a personalized list of news stories throughout the day generated by the activity of “friends” (e.g., Gabriel added the Super Yo-yo to his favorites; Jane changed her status to “single” again, etc.). Thus, each time users log in, they get the latest headlines in their social networks. “Mini-Feed” is similar, except that it centers around one individual. Each person’s “Mini-Feed” shows what has changed recently in their profile and what content or modules (“applications”) they have added. Because individuals can delete from their own “Mini-Feed” stories they do not like, users retain control of who gets to read or see what about them. Among the most popular modules users can incorporate to their profiles is “Facebook Groups,” which allows users to create and join groups based around common interests and activities. The “Groups” application displays each individual’s groups as well as groups their “friends” have joined recently. Thus, an important share of the civic and political impact of Facebook should occur within groups developed by users and organizations.

What is Social Capital?
Social capital refers to the intangible resources embedded within interpersonal relationships or social institutions. Social capital can exist in three major forms: as obligations and expectations, as information channels, and as social norms. Obligations and expectations can be conceived of as a "credit slip" that people hold, and that can be cashed when necessary. Information channels provide appropriate information as an important basis for action. Social norms provide the criteria for rewarding or sanctioning individual actions. In the context of education, social capital in the forms of parental expectations, obligations, and social networks that exist within the family, school, and community are important for student success. These variations in academic success can be attributed to parents' expectations and obligations for educating their children; to the network and connections between families whom the school serves; to the disciplinary and academic climate at school; and to the cultural norms and values that promote student efforts. The concept of social capital is a useful theoretical construct for explaining the disparities in students' educational performance among different nations. In the 1980s James Coleman developed the concept of social capital to conceptualize social patterns and processes that contribute to the ethnic disparities of student achievement. He argued that the educational expectation, norms, and obligations that exist within a family or a community are important social capital that can influence the level of parental involvement and investment, which in turn affect academic success. At the family level, parents' cultural capital and financial capital become available to the child only if the social connection between the child and the parents is sufficiently strong. Youths from single-parent families or with larger numbers of siblings are more likely to drop out of high school because of the eroded social capital associated with the nontraditional family structure. As new structures of the household in modern society become more prevalent, many linkages and activities that provided social capital for the next generation are no longer present, and their absence may be detrimental to children's learning. At the institutional level, disciplinary climate and academic norms established by the school community and the mutual trust between home and school are major forms of social capital. These forms of social capital are found to contribute to student learning outcomes in East Asian countries such as Singapore, Korea, and Hong Kong. They have been shown to have a significant impact, not only on creating a learning and caring school climate, but also on improving the quality of schooling and reducing inequality of learning outcomes between social-class groups. http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2427/Social-Capital-Education.html#ixzz1ChnQ6Ylk

PROBLEM STATEMENT

1. This study is conducted to know the intensity of Facebook use of some students of Baco Catholic School, how much time they spend in using

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