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THE EFFECT OF THE 4PS ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED PUPILS OF CRISTINA R. PRINCESA MEMORIAL ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, LIGAO CITY DIVISION - A Collaborative Action Research - (Chapters 1-4)

By helloiamprince Apr 13, 2015 5189 Words
UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

CHAPTER 1
THE PROBLEM

Introduction
Education is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the progress of a country. It is a basic need of every citizen of a country and a very essential tool in an individual‘s success. The Philippines, as a state, includes education as a fundamental right of every individual. Therefore, the government must do everything in their power to give to its citizens the quality education that is due to them.

The effectiveness of the educational system is being reflected by the academic performance of the students. The higher the academic performance of the students, the more effective the educational system is. This also affects the reputation of everyone within the spectrum of the Department of Education, the main governing body regulating the education sector of the Republic of the Philippines, namely the administrators and the teachers. The support of the stakeholders also has a direct relationship to the academic performance of the students. The higher the academic performance, the more likely the LGU (Local

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UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Government Unit), the community, and the parents will show their cooperation and give their support.
There are lots of factors that affect the academic performance of students. Globally, many studies have been conducted to deduce the effects that these factors have on student performance. These studies mainly operate with the objective of improving the standard and quality of education. These factors include, but not limited to, the following: the available learning facilities, teacher factor, guidance and support available, family stress and influence and socioeconomic status.

Many educators have observed that in the Philippine setting, however, the major factor that affects the academic performance fall under the socioeconomic status of the student and his or her family. Being categorized as a third world country, it is by far no wonder that poverty is a major problem. Poverty branches out to several other problems like high incidence of absenteeism, poor nutrition leading to poor physical and mental health, high drop-out rate, and, of course, poor academic performance.

The Philippine government under the Aquino administration
managed to devise a way on how to minimize the number of families within and below the poverty line. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino 2

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Program (4Ps) is an adaptation of the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes of the Latin American and African countries, which has helped millions of people around the world get out of the poverty line. This is a program designed for the poorest of the poor in order to facilitate the improvement of health, nutrition, and educational status of children within 0-18 age bracket.

According to the website of the Official Gazette of the Government of the Philippines, the 4Ps also helps the Philippine Government fulfill its commitment to the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) – specifically in eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, in achieving universal primary education, in promoting gender equality, in reducing child mortality and in improving maternal health care.

Since the 4Ps aims to help in facilitating the improvement of the socioeconomic status of the poorest of the poor families and ensuring that their children can avail public education both in primary and secondary, the researchers deemed it prudent to analyze the result or the effect of the said program on the academic performance of the students. The result of this study is beneficial in determining the success rate of the said program in relation to the attainment of one of its goals. Likewise, teachers may also learn new insights on how to further improve the academic 3

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

performance of the students whose households are beneficiaries of the 4Ps, recognize their needs and what appropriate actions can be employed.

Statement of the Problem
This research paper gave light to the following specific questions: 1. What is the effect of the 4Ps on the academic performance of selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary
School, Ligao City Division?
2. Is there a significant improvement on the academic performance of the pupils?
3. How does the 4Ps affect the pupils‘ performance?

Objective of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the 4Ps on the academic performance of the students.

Assumptions
1. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) has a positive effect on the academic performance of selected pupils of the 4

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School, Ligao City
Division.
2. There has been a significant improvement on the academic
performance of the selected pupils.
3. The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) has helped
improve the pupils‘ performance by decreasing the incidence of absenteeism and improving the nutritional status of the pupils.

Null Hypothesis
There is no significant improvement between the academic
performance of the pupils before and after their respective households have been enlisted in the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps).

Alternative Hypothesis
There is a significant improvement between the academic
performance of the pupils before and after their respective households have been enlisted in the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps).

5

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Scope and Limitation
This study was limited to selected pupils of the Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School who were beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippine Government during the conduct of the study.

Definition of Terms
The terms that were used in this study were operationally and/or conceptually defined as follows:
Effect. A change in the academic performance that resulted from the implementation of 4Ps in the poorest of the poor families.
4Ps. It is the acronym for Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), a program initiated by the Philippine Government to help improve the socioeconomic status of the poorest of the poor Filipino families. Academic Performance. The extent to which the pupils and the teacher have achieved their educational goal. In the context of this study, pupils who have achieved at least 75% rating or higher have achieved the educational goal.

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UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

MDG. It is the acronym for Millennium Development Goals which, in the context of this research, pertains to the following goals due to be achieved by 2015: To eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; to achieve universal primary education; to promote gender equality and empower women; to reduce child

mortality;

to

improve maternal

health;

to

combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; to ensure environmental sustainability; to develop a global partnership for development. Pupils. In the context of this study, this term refers to the subjects.

7

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

CHAPTER 2
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Subjects
The subjects of this study were selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School (CRPMES) whose households were enlisted in the registry of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) beneficiaries during the conduct of this research.

Instruments
The instruments that were used in this study were the subjects‘ class record (Form 137), nutritional status record, and attendance record for the School Year 2012-2013 and 2014-2015.

Research Design
Correlational Explanatory Research Design was used in this study wherein the data collected were treated statistically to find out the relationship between them. In this research, after the subjects‘ data for S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015 were collected, they were tested for

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UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

correlation to find out if the status of the pupils‘ academic performance had improved in relation to the implementation of the 4Ps.
Pre-test and post-test design was also used because the data concerning the pupils academic performance before the implementation of the 4Ps (S/Y 2012-2013) and two years after its implementation (S/Y 2014-2015) were collected— the 4Ps being the independent variable and the academic performance being the dependent variable.

Procedure
The

researchers

gathered

data

of

the

pupils‘

academic

performance, nutritional status and attendance record for the S/Y 20122013 and

S/Y 2014-2015. The academic performance record were

collected from Form 137, extracting grades from first grading to fourth grading and their average. The nutritional status of each of the pupils were also gathered and were expressed in the corresponding interpretation of the recorded BMI (Body-Mass Index). The attendance were collected from Form 137 of each pupils and were presented in the number of absences per year in order to get a clearer picture of the incidence of absenteeism. After the data collection, the researchers collated the data and tried to find the relationship/s between and/or among them using appropriate 9

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

statistical tools. The data were interpreted and a discussion of the results were

presented.

The

researchers

also

presented

relevant

recommendations and/or actions.

Data Analysis and Statistical Treatment
After the desired sets of data were gathered, they were treated using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation, percentage and T-Test. r

=

n (Σxy) – (Σx) (Σy)
[n (Σx2) – (Σx)2] [n (Σy2) – (Σy)2]

The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to find the
relationship between the academic performance of the pupils before and after their households were enlisted as beneficiaries of the 4Ps. Percentage technique and averaging were used to determine the relationship between the nutritional status of the pupils before and after their households were enlisted as beneficiaries of the 4Ps. The attendance record was also treated using this statistical treatment and for the same reason as with nutritional status and the academic performance. n

x 100

P=
N
10

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

The percentage method was also used to further gauge the degree of distribution of the nutritional status and attendance record in connection with the total as well as the changes in these data for the S/Y 2012-2013 and 2014-2015.

t

=

D
ΣD2 – (ΣD)2
n
n (n - 1)

The T-Test was used to determine the trueness of the null
hypothesis. This was essential to figure out if there was indeed a significant improvement between the academic results of the pupils before and after their respective households were enlisted in the 4Ps registry of beneficiaries.

11

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

CHAPTER 3
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents and analyses the data that answered the specific problems of the study.
Profile of the Pupils
Table 1 shows that out of 20 pupil respondents, 8 (40%) were males and 12 (60%) were females.

Male

Female

Total

Frequency

8

12

20

Percentage

40%

60%

100%

Table 1. Subjects by Sex
Academic Grades/Performances of the Pupils
Table 2 presents the grades of the pupils for S/Y 2012-2013. This was the school year before their households were enlisted in the 4Ps. The

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UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

table also presented the average of each pupils, the mean academic grades of all the pupils per grading period and the mean average.

PUPIL
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
Mean

st

1
80
78
79
78
79
80
78
80
76
82
80
80
82
84
81
79
80
82
83
84
80.25

Grading Period
2nd
3rd
79
80
78
79
80
79
79
79
78
78
80
79
78
79
80
80
76
78
80
81
80
81
80
80
81
81
84
84
81
81
79
80
80
80
80
81
83
83
84
85
80
80.4

4th
81
79
80
79
78
80
79
81
78
81
81
81
81
85
82
80
80
82
84
85
80.85

Average
80
78.5
79.5
78.75
78.25
79.75
78.5
80.25
77
81
80.5
80.25
81.25
84.25
81.25
79.5
80
81.25
83.25
84.5
80.375

Table 2. Academic Grades of the Pupils for S/Y 2012-2013
Table 3 presents the grades of the pupils for S/Y 2014-2015. During this school year, their households were already enlisted in the 4Ps roster of beneficiaries. The table also presented the average of each pupil,

13

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

the mean academic grades of all the pupils per grading period and the mean average.

PUPIL
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
Mean

Grading Period
st

1
80
79
80
80
79
82
82
80
79
82
81
80
82
84
81
80
80
82
83
85
81.05

2nd
82
80
81
80
79
82
83
82
80
83
81
80
82
85
82
82
81
83
84
86
81.9

3rd
83
80
82
80
80
84
84
82
80
83
83
80
82
86
83
82
81
84
84
87
82.5

4th
83
81
84
82
82
84
84
82
80
83
84
82
83
87
84
83
82
85
85
88
83.4

Average
82
80
81.75
80.5
80
83
83.25
81.5
79.75
82.75
82.25
80.5
82.25
85.5
82.5
81.75
81
83.5
84
86.5
82.213

Table 3. Academic Grades of the Pupils for S/Y 2014-2015
Table 4 summarizes the average academic grades of the pupils for S/Y

2012-2013

and

S/Y

2014-2015

improvements expressed in percentage.

14

with

their

corresponding

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Pupil

School Year

2012-2013
2014-2015
A
80
82
B
78.5
80
C
79.5
81.75
D
78.75
80.5
E
78.25
80
F
79.75
83
G
78.5
83.25
H
80.25
81.5
I
77
79.75
J
81
82.75
K
80.5
82.25
L
80.25
80.5
M
81.25
82.25
N
84.25
85.5
O
81.25
82.5
P
79.5
81.75
Q
80
81
R
81.25
83.5
S
83.25
84
T
84.5
86.5
Mean Percentage of Improvement

Improvement
Percentage
2.44%
1.88%
2.75%
2.17%
2.19%
3.92%
5.71%
1.53%
3.45%
2.11%
2.13%
0.31%
1.22%
1.46%
1.52%
2.75%
1.23%
2.69%
0.89%
2.31%
2.23%

Table 4. Improvements of Pupils‘ Academic Grades

It is evident in Table 4 that there were improvements in the academic grades of the pupils before and after their enlistment in the 4Ps. The highest improvement by percentage was Pupil F, whose grade from 79.75 climbed to 83, garnering 3.92% improvement. The lowest improvement by percentage was 0.31% by Pupil L, whose grade from

15

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

80.25 became 80.5. Nevertheless, all of the academic grades of the pupils had increased, no matter how small the percentage of improvement was.

Nutritional Status of the Pupils
Table 5 shows the nutritional status of the pupils in S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015. In this table, three (3) stands for normal, two (2) stands for wasted and one (1) stands for severely wasted.

Pupil
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T

Nutritional Status
2012-2013
2014-2015
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
3
3
3
3
3
1
2
3
3
1
3
3
3
2
3
3
3
2
3
1
3
1
2
2
3
3
3
2
3
1
3
1
3
Table 5. Nutritional Status of the Pupils

16

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Table 6 presents the distribution of the pupils per nutritional status classification expressed in body-mass index (BMI) for S/Y 2012-2013 and 2014-2015.

School
Year
2012-2013
2014-2015

Nutritional Status (BMI)
Severely Wasted
(1)

Wasted
(2)

Normal
(3)

Total

6 (30%)
0 (0%)

6 (30%)
2 (10%)

8 (40%)
18 (90%)

20
20

Table 6. Nutritional Status Distribution Table
It is evident in Table 6 that the nutritional status of the pupils had improved from S/Y 2012-2013, the time when they were still not included in the 4Ps beneficiaries, to S/Y 2014-2015, the time when they were already enlisted as beneficiaries of the said program. The number of severely wasted pupils had dropped from 30% to 0% and similarly, the percentage of wasted pupils had dropped from 30% to 10%. The percentage of pupils who were classified as having normal nutritional status had increased from 40% to 90% with 55.56% improvement. Absences of the Pupils

Table 7 shows the number of pupil absences in S/Y 2012-2013 and 2014-2015, along with the percentage of their progress.

17

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Pupil
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
TOTAL

Absences per School Year
2012-2013
2014-2015
4
2
3
2
3
2
4
2
4
2
2
0
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
4
1
4
1
5
1
5
1
3
2
3
2
3
2
3
1
4
2
2
0
68
27

Percentage
Difference
50%
33.33%
33.33%
50%
50%
100%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
66.67%
75%
75%
80%
80%
33.33%
33.33%
33.33%
66.67%
50%
100%
60.29%

Table 7. Percentage Difference in the Number of Pupil Absences It is apparent in Table 7 that the absences of the selected pupils in the two School Years had a 60.29% drop—the highest improvement or decrease being pupils F and T with 100% decrease and the lowest being pupils B, C, O, P, and Q with 33.33% decrease in the number of absences. Generally, there had been an improvement in the attendance of the pupils when their households were already enlisted in the 4Ps.

18

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Table 8 shows the distribution and tabular interpretation of the progress of pupil absences in S/Y 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. Five (5) being the maximum recorded number of absences and zero (0) being the lowest. It is evident in Table 8 that the number of absences of the students had been greatly minimized.

School
Year
2012-2013
2014-2015
Degree of
Progress

Number of Absences
4
3
2
1
6
10
2
0
(30%) (50%) (10%)
9
9
0
0
(45%) (45%)

0

20

2
(10%)

20

100%

100%

77.8%

100%

%

Decrea Decre
se
ase

Decre
ase

Increa Increa Increa
se
se
se

5
2
(10%)
0
100%

100%

0

Total

Statu
s

Table 8. Distribution and Tabular Interpretation of Student Absences

The effect of the 4Ps on the Academic Performance of Selected Pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School
(CRPMES), Ligao City Division
To determine the effect of the 4Ps on the academic performance of selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School, the researchers gathered the data of the selected pupils—namely academic ratings, nutritional status and number of absences—for S/Y 2012-2013

19

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

and S/Y 2014-2015, before and after their households became
beneficiaries of the 4Ps respectively. These data were already presented in tabular forms in this chapter.
To determine the relationship of the 4Ps to the academic
performance, Pearson Product Moment Correlation was the statistical treatment used. It revealed 0.86 correlation, which was interpreted as having strong positive correlation. Strong positive correlation in Pearson r means that there is consistency in the data. Therefore, in the case of the pupils‘ academic performance, it means that there had been a consistent increase or improvement in the pupil average from S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015

Figure

1

shows

the

relationship

between

the

academic

performance of the students in S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015. As evident in the graphical presentation, the trend line started from lower track going higher as it approaches the top right portion of the graph. This direction indicates strong positive correlation. Despite the presence of variation, it is still apparent that the majority of the data or the grades fall close to the trend line.

20

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Academic Performance
S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015
Correlation Scatter Plot
89
87
85
83

Academic Grades

81

Correlation of Grades

79
77
75
75

77

79

81

83

85

87

Figure 1. Academic Performance S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015 Correlation Scatter Plot

T-test was the statistical tool used to test the null hypothesis and to answer the second specific question: Is there a significant difference or improvement in the academic performance of the pupils?

21

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Distribution of Difference of Scores

0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
-3.06

-2.08

-1.1

-0.12

0.86

1.84
x

2.82

3.8

4.78

5.76

6.74

Figure 2. Distribution of the Difference in Academic Grades Between S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015
Figure 2 shows how the academic grades were distributed. The mean of the difference of academic performance was at 1.8375, marked with ‗x‘. The standard deviation of the difference of scores was 0.9776. The bell curve also showed the rejection point, wherein if the computed t was beyond the shaded portion of the curve, the null hypothesis had to be rejected.

The red portion of the bell curve in Figure 2 showed the shaded portion, which meant that if the t-value fell within the red portion of the bell curve, the null hypothesis had to be accepted. On the other hand, if the computed t-value fell beyond or outside the shaded part, also known as

22

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

the rejection zone, the null hyporthesis had to be rejected and the alternative hypothesis be accepted.
Having a 0.05 critical value and 90% confidence interval,

the

computed t-value of the academic performances of the pupils in S/Y 20122013 and S/Y 2014-2015 was 8.4. Comparing the computed t-value to the critical two-tail value of

2.09, which also marked the start of the rejection

zone, it was evident that the computed t-value exceeded the critical value. With this the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was statistically approved. This result meant that there was indeed a significant improvement in the academic performance of the pupils. Given these statistical results and computed values, which can be seen in Table 9, the researchers were 90% confident that the mean difference between the academic performance of the pupils in S/Y 20122013 and S/Y 2014-2015 was between 1.37 and 2.30, which means that the academic performance of the pupils was higher in S/Y 2014-2015 than in S/Y 2012-2013.

23

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(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Table 9. Summary of Computed Mean Values and Mean Differences of Student Academic Grades for the S/Y 2012-2013 and S/Y 2014-2015 24

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Computed Values
S/Y 2014-2015 (Y)
Mean
82.2125
Variance
3.1729
Observations
20
Pearson Correlation
0.8643
Hypothesized Mean
0
Difference
df
19
t Stat
8.405599579
P(T<=t) one-tail
3.98906E-08
t Critical one-tail
1.729132812
P(T<=t) two-tail
7.97812E-08
t Critical two-tail
2.093024054
Mean Difference
Standard Deviation of Difference
Standard Error of Difference
T alpha half 90% CI
Lower Confidence Level
Upper Confidence Level

S/Y 2012-2013 (X)
80.3750
3.7270
20

1.8375
0.9776
0.2186
2.0930
1.3800
2.2950

Table 10. Summary of Computed Values
Tables 9 and 10 show the summary of the computed values that aided the researchers in computing for the signifcance between the two sets of academic grades and finding the statistical relationship between them.

25

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This research study aimed to determine the effect of the 4Ps to the academic performance of selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School, Ligao City Division. During the conduct of this study, the following results were gained.

Findings
The academic performances of the pupils before and after the implementation of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippine Government had improved significantly. Likewise, the number of pupil absences had dropped and the nutritional status had improved. Therefore, despite the fact that economic status isn‘t the only factor that could influence a students‘ academic performance, it is safe to say that the 4Ps had been one of the major factors that affected the pupils‘ ratings, as evidenced by the statistical results.

Through the t-test, the null hypothesis was rejected and the alternative hypothesis was adapted. Therefore, it was proven that there had been a significant relationship and a significant improvement in the

26

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

academic performance of the pupils before and after their households were enlisted in the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) of the Philippine government.
The 4Ps had helped improve the academic performance of the
selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School (CRPMES), Ligao City Division, by evidently facilitating the improvement of the nutritional status of the pupils and decreasing the incidence of absenteeism. It could be said that the program helped facilitate such cases of improvements, and thereby lifting the academic performance, because the 4Ps had established certain conditions, which should be met upon by every household in exchange of the monetary benefits or cash grants being given to them.

To continue being a member of the 4Ps, the following conditions must be met: 1) Pregnant women must avail pre- and post-natal care, and be attended during childbirth by a trained professional; 2) Parents or guardians must attend the family development sessions, which include topics on responsible parenting, health, and nutrition; 3) Children aged 0-5 must receive regular preventive health check-ups and vaccines; 4) Children aged 6-14 must receive deworming pills twice a year; and 5)

27

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Children-beneficiaries aged 3-18 must enroll in school, and maintain an attendance of at least 85% of class days every month.
The improvement of the nutritional status could be directly linked with the decrease in the incidence of absenteeism because a healthy individual would have lesser probability of contracting diseases compared to an unhealthy individual, which would then lead to lesser absences brought by medical reasons. The 4Ps had an influence over the nutritional status of the pupils because they were obliged to receive preventive health check-ups, vaccines and deworming until they reach the age of 18, as part of the conditions of being a 4Ps member. Similary, it was included in the conditions that absences should be minimized to at least 85% of class days every month.

The attendance of a student is directly related to his or her academic performance. This means that a student who is always present has a higher chance of getting a better performance academically than a students who has some absences. Therefore, the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) had helped improve the academic performance of the pupils by facilitating the reduction of their number of absences and the improvement of their nutritional status.

28

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

Conclusions
The Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) had a positive effect on the academic performance of selected pupils of Cristina R. Princesa Memorial Elementary School, Ligao City Division. Coupled with the improvement in the pupils‘ nutritional status and decrease in the incidence of absenteeism as facilitated by the 4Ps, the academic performance of the pupils had improved.

Recommendations
After getting the result of this study, the researchers came up with the following recommendations:
1. There should be a thorough appraisal of the effect of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) on the academic performance of students in every school.
2. The parents and the students should be interviewed regarding their personal view of the effect of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) to the academic performance.
3. The compliance rate of the 4Ps recipients should be studied, both in terms of health and education conditions.

29

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

REFERENCES
ROSALES, Ma. Celina N. The Effective Implementation of Child Friendly School System in the Pilot Schools of Polangui Districts, Division of Albay. Iriga City: University of Saint Anthony, School of Graduate Studies and Research, March 2008.

"Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program." Gov.ph. Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines,. Web. 12 March. 2015.
―MCCT Frequently Asked Questions.‖ Pantawid.dswd.gov.ph. Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program., February 13, 2015., Web. 11 March 2015.
LANE, David M. ―Computing Pearson’s r.‖ Onlinestatbook.com. Rice University, University of Houston Clear Lake, Tufts University., Web. 12 March. 2015.

30

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

APPENDIX A
Summary of Values

31

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

APPENDIX B
Pearson Product Moment Correlation Computation

32

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

APPENDIX C
T – Test Computation

33

UNIVERSITY OF SAINT ANTHONY
(Dr. Santiago G. Ortega Memorial)
City of Iriga
SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

APPENDIX D
Guidelines on the Implementation of Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps)

34

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