Preview

The Earth and its Peoples Chapter One Outline

Good Essays
Open Document
Open Document
1323 Words
Grammar
Grammar
Plagiarism
Plagiarism
Writing
Writing
Score
Score
The Earth and its Peoples Chapter One Outline
Chapter One Notes

Before Civilization (Circa Lorraine)
Culture: constituted by learned patterns of action and expression
FOOD GATHERING AND STONE TECHNOLOGY
Stone tool-making first appeared around 2 million years ago
Stone Age
Lasted from 2 million to about 4,000 years ago
Misleading label: bone, skin and wood just survive poorly
Paleolithic = Old Stone Age Neolithic = New Stone Age
Foundations of science, art, and religion begin here
May have believed in afterlife
In game-rich areas, people could practice these things
Mostly about hunting, some about religion, some, attempts at writing?
Foragers
Hunting and food-gathering peoples that tended to live in groups
Early humans didn’t live primarily on meat
Proof of cooking begins about 12,500 years ago (clay pots, East Asia)
THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONS (Middle Eastern Origin)
10,000 years ago domestication begins to supplement food needs
Began w/ foragers spreading seeds of native plants at seasonal camps
beer b/c of wheat production
Middle East shows earliest signs
Emmer wheat and barley were ‘created’
Some local spread, but some independent
Many methods focus on soil fertility (2600 BCE, Central Europe starts using plows)
Pastoralism
A way of life dependent on large herds of livestock
Semi-cultivation, mobility, milk reliance

The Holocene
Global warming period that ended the last Ice Age and may have triggered the ARs
Some drier regions stuck with H&G until more recently
LIFE IN NEOLITHIC COMMUNITIES
Early farmers may have had to work even harder than foragers
Benefits (winter store) outweighed negatives
Some say there was conflict between farmers and foragers, others say the change may have been gradual thus minimizing conflict
Matrilineality: tracing descent thru women Matriarchal: rule by women
Megaliths
Relating to religion
Jericho and Catal Huyuk
Examples of relatively large, complex Neolithic societies
CH had one shrine per two houses
Abundance of female deities

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Better Essays

    The Indian Ocean Maritime System was a society of seafarers established across the IndianOcean and South China Sea.…

    • 2391 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Good Essays

    WORLD HISTORY

    • 1046 Words
    • 4 Pages

    The people in the stone age would produced fire by rubbing two stone, and used the fire to cook the animals to eat. A stage of technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely dependent on domestic plants and animals, and the presence of such crafts as…

    • 1046 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    The Earth Has A Fever

    • 2981 Words
    • 8 Pages

    For the last 2.5 million years, global temperature has shifted between cold glacial periods that last for around 100 000 years, and warmer interglacial periods that last for around 10 000 years. Right now we are in an interglacial period. 20 000 years ago the Earth was cold. Around 15000 years ago it started to warm up, this was the end of the last glacial period. Over the last 10 000 years the climate has been warm with minor fluctuations, however over the last 1000 years the climate has been fairly constant with small fluctuations in annual temperature. Over the last century global temperature has increased rapidly. This is called global warming; there has been a sharp rise in average temperature, 0.7oc between 1900 and 2000. The temperature increase over the last century has been very fast. There is a consensus among scientists that the changes in climate over the last century are a result in human activities (anthropogenic causes), including Al Gore, as shown in the statement which I agree with. I think the majority of global warming is due to humans therefore it is our right to try and find solutions to diminish global warming as much as we can.…

    • 2981 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    9. What was the primary agent by which European language and culture was transmitted to Brazil and Spanish America? P.435…

    • 513 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The Ice Age formed a land bridge in the area of present-day Bering Sea, which allowed nomadic groups of people to enter the Americas.…

    • 859 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Assumes all countries follow a similar path to development or modernization, advancing through the five stages of development:…

    • 792 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Rome’s location contributed to its success in unifying Italy and all the lands bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Agriculture was essential to Rome and was the source of most wealth. Social status, political privilege, and fundamental values were related to land ownership. The heads of families who were able to acquire a large profit of land were members of the Senate—“Council of Elders” that played a central role in Roman politics. The Republic was not a democracy in the modern sense. In Rome, the votes of the wealthy classes counted for more than the votes of poor citizens. Individuals of separate classes came together in ties of obligation, such as the patron/client relationship. Rome’s success in creating a huge empire released forces that eventually destroyed the Republican system of government. Octavian eliminated all enemies and reconstructed the Roman system of government. This period following the Republic is called the Principate. Augustus, one of the many names given to Octavian, became the name by which he is best known. Augustus’s understanding of human nature enabled him to manipulate Roman society. During his reign Egypt, parts of the Middle East, and Central Europe were added to the empire. Augustus had allied himself with the equites; Italian merchants and landowners second in wealth and social status. They helped run the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire of the first three centuries was an “urban” empire. Trade was greatly enhanced by the pax romana guaranteed by the Romans. Romanization—the spread of the Latin language and Roman way of life—was strongest in the western provinces. During this period of tranquility and success, many waited for the arrival of “the Messiah,” or Jesus, a young Jew. Paul, a Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in southeast Anatolia, threw his talent and energy into spreading the word of Jesus. Surviving pieces of roads, walls, aqueducts and buildings are evidence of the engineering expertise of the ancient Romans. The third…

    • 599 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The age of the earth has been debated for centuries. Some people think that it is the big bang and everything evolved after that. They believe that that it took billions of years for earth to form. Others believe that God created the earth in seven days, and that the earth is young. There are plenty of evidence that earth is young. For example, there is only a little bit of sediment on the seafloor, but if the earth is 4 billion years old there would be more. Another example, is if the earth was old soft tissue would not be found in fossils. Secular scientist and Christian scientist both use different methods on figuring out how old the earth is. Secular scientist looks at layers of rocks to help them, while Christian scientist use the Bible…

    • 2067 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    The Good Earth Essay

    • 866 Words
    • 4 Pages

    In her Pulitzer Prize-winning novel, The Good Earth, Pearl S. Buck tells the story of Wang Lung, a diligent farmer living in pre-revolutionary China. The novel begins with Wang Lung’s visit to the powerful House of Hwang to collect one of the house’s slaves, a woman named O-lan, to be his wife; O-lan proves herself to be a plain, yet dutiful and competent wife over the next few years, producing three sons and a daughter and keeping her new family well fed. Wang Lung’s land thrives, increasing Wang Lung’s wealth and social status and enabling Wang Lung and O-lan to return to the House of Hwang to flaunt their prosperous life and healthy boys in front of O-lan’s old masters. Soon, however, hard times befall the House of Hwang and Wang Lung’s town; Wang Lung and his family flee to the south to evade the drought suffocating his…

    • 866 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Some experts point out that we are still coming out of the last ice age, which from a geologist’s perspective was just yesterday. While that certainly may be a contributing factor, so is the greenhouse effect caused by our energy use. We can’t do anything about the ice age cycle, but we can and must do something about the greenhouse crisis.…

    • 455 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    The first evidence of plant domestication comes from emmer and einkorn wheat found in pre-Pottery Neolithic A villages in Southwest Asia dated about 10,500 to 10,100 BC. The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas. The eight Neolithic founder crops (emmer wheat, einkorn wheat, barley,…

    • 1024 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    There was nothing natural or inevitable about the development of agriculture. Because cultivation of plants requires more labor than hunting and gathering, we can assume that Stone Age humans gave up their former ways of life reluctantly and slowly. In fact, peoples such as the Bushmen of Southwest Africa still follow them today. But between about 8000 and 3500 B.C., increasing numbers of humans shifted to dependence on cultivated crops and domesticated animals for their subsistence. By about 7000 B.C., their tools and skills had advanced sufficiently for cultivating peoples to support towns with…

    • 4454 Words
    • 18 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    The video "Earth: The power of the planet" is about the lithosphere system in Earth. It contains a few main ideas. They are the origin of Earth, the core below Earth, movement of Teutonic plates, geographical environment.…

    • 306 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    zboys

    • 1806 Words
    • 6 Pages

    The Paleolithic – or “Old Stone Age” – is the earliest era of human existence, when stone tools were used and humans took shelter in caves. This era started with the first people at an uncertain date in the distant past. The Old Stone Age continued until about 10,000 years ago. During that period, even these early humans expressed themselves artistically.…

    • 1806 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    ice ages ' when the world seemed to cool down for years. Is it possible to make…

    • 1611 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays