top-rated free essay

The Earth

By Priyasmiles Dec 21, 2012 3399 Words
THE EARTH
At the beginning our planet is no more than a case of fire and cloud with glutenated dust particles similar to so many similar cloisters in the universe. This was the miracle where our life exists in this universe. Today life our life is just a link or chain of so many numerable living beings that was succeeded one another honours over nearly 4 billion years and even today new volcanoes continue to sculpt our landscapes it appears like molten rocks from the depths, solidifying, cracking, blistering and spreading a same crust before falling a dormant fertility. Deeply earth is full of smoke coming out there are witness to the earth's original atmosphere and atmosphere to discoid of the oxygen. A dense atmosphere sinks with water vapour full of carbon dioxide a furnace. The earth core the water vapour condensed and fell into down poles. At the right distance from the sun not too far and too near the earth perfect balance in able to consume water in liquid form. The rivers stool minerals from the rocks and gradually added them to the fresh water of the oceans and the oceans became heavy with salt. WHERE DO WE COME FROM? WHERE OUR LIFE EXISTS?

A miracle of time the primitive life forms still exists in the globe's hot springs they give them their colours they called Archaebacteria. They all feed of the earth's heat all except cyanobacteria or blue green algae. They will have the capacity to turn to sun to captures energy. They are viral and sestrel all yesterdays and todays plant species. These tiny bacteria and their billions of descendants change the destiny of our planet. They transformed this atmosphere. Carbon drained from the atmosphere and other life forms to develop. Plant life feed of sun’s energy which are able to break up the water molecule and takes the oxygen and the oxygen fill the air. The earth's water cycle is a process of constant renewal like water falls-water vapour-clouds-rain-springs-rivers-seas-oceans. The cycle is never broken. The earth always contains same quantity of water; all successful species on earth had drunk this water. The water exists in following manner liquid form as running water, gaseous as vapour and solid as ice. Engine of life is linkage, everything on earth is linked nothing is self-sufficient. Water in air is in separable and united our lives and forms our life on earth sharing is everything. Green expands on earth that means oxygen level is increasing on earth.70% of the green that is land and 30% of the blue that is water. Natural climate change

Climate change can refer to any long-term significant change in the patterns of average weather of a specific region (or, more relevantly to contemporary socio-political concerns, of the Earth as a whole) over an appropriately significant period of time, caused by natural forcing. In the past these have included periods of ice age's and periods warmer than today. Ice Age:

In the history of the Earth, 12 known ice ages have occurred. More ice ages will be possible at an interval of 40,000–100,000 years although engineers working for Posiva, a Finnish company currently constructing the On kalo spent nuclear fuel repository, has planned the facility to withstand an Ice Age starting as 'soon' as 20,000 years. An Ice Age would have a serious impact on civilization because vast areas of land (mainly in North America, Europe, and Asia) could become uninhabitable. It would still be possible to live in the tropical regions, but with possible loss of humidity/water. Currently, the world is existing in an interglacial period within a much older glacial event. The last glacial expansion ended about 10,000 years ago, and all civilizations evolved later. Volcanism

A geological event such as massive flood basalt, volcanism, or the eruption of a super volcano leading to the so called Volcanic Winter (Similar to a Nuclear Winter). One such event, the Toba Eruption, occurred in Indonesia about 71,500 years ago. According to the Toba catastrophe theory, the event may have reduced human populations to only a few tens of thousands of individuals. Yellowstone Caldera is another such super volcano, having undergone 142 or more caldera-forming eruptions in the past 17 million years. Massive volcano eruption(s) will produce extraordinary intake of volcanic dust, toxic and greenhouse gases into the atmosphere with serious effects on global climate (towards extreme global cooling (nuclear winter when in short term and ice age when in long term) or global warming (if greenhouse gases prevail)). When the super volcano at Yellowstone last erupted 640,000 years ago, the magma and ash ejected from the caldera covered most of the United States west of the Mississippi river and part of north eastern Mexico. Another such eruption could threaten civilization. Such an eruption could also release large amounts of gases that could alter the balance of the planet's carbon dioxide and cause a runaway greenhouse effect or enough pyroclastic debris and other material might be thrown into the atmosphere to partially block out the sun and cause a volcanic winter, as happened in 1816 following the eruption of Mount Tambora, the so-called Year Without a Summer. Such an eruption might cause the immediate deaths of millions of people several hundred miles from the eruption, and perhaps billions of deaths worldwide, due to the failure of the monsoon resulting in major crop failures causing starvation on a massive scale. Super volcanoes are more likely threats than many others, as a prehistoric Indonesian super volcano eruption may have reduced the human population to only a few thousand individuals, while no catastrophic bolide impact, for example, has occurred since long before modern humans evolved. Mega tsunami

Another possibility is a mega tsunami. A mega tsunami could, for example, destroy the entire East Coast of the United States. The coastal areas of the entire world could also be flooded in case of the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. While none of these scenarios is likely to destroy humanity completely, they could regionally threaten civilization. There have been two recent high-fatality tsunamis--after the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, although they were not large enough to be considered mega tsunamis. A mega tsunami could have astronomical origins as well, such as an asteroid impact in an ocean. Atmosphere

The atmospheric pressure on the surface of the Earth averages 101.325 kPa, with a scale height of about 8.5 km. It is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with trace amounts of water vapour, carbon dioxide and other gaseous molecules. The height of the troposphere varies with latitude, ranging between 8 km at the poles to 17 km at the equator, with some variation resulting from weather and seasonal factors. Earth's biosphere has significantly altered its atmosphere. Oxygenic photosynthesis evolved 2.7 bya, forming the primarily nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere of today. This change enabled the proliferation of aerobic organisms as well as the formation of the ozone layer which blocks ultraviolet solar radiation, permitting life on land. Other atmospheric functions important to life on Earth include transporting water vapour, providing useful gases, causing small meteors to burn up before they strike the surface, and moderating temperature.[116] This last phenomenon is known as the greenhouse effect: trace molecules within the atmosphere serve to capture thermal energy emitted from the ground, thereby raising the average temperature. Water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. Without this heat-retention effect, the average surface would be −18 °C, in contrast to the current +15 °C, and life would likely not exist. Above the troposphere, the atmosphere is usually divided into the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. Each layer has a different lapse rate, defining the rate of change in temperature with height. Beyond these, the exosphere thins out into the magnetosphere, where the Earth's magnetic fields interact with the solar wind. Within the stratosphere is the ozone layer, a component that partially shields the surface from ultraviolet light and thus is important for life on Earth. The Kármán line, defined as 100 km above the Earth's surface, is a working definition for the boundary between atmosphere and space. MOON:

The Moon is a relatively large, terrestrial, planet-like satellite, with a diameter about one-quarter of the Earth's. It is the largest moon in the Solar System relative to the size of its planet, although Charon is larger relative to the dwarf planet Pluto. The natural satellites orbiting other planets are called "moons" after Earth's Moon. Natural resources and land use

The Earth provides resources that are exploitable by humans for useful purposes. Some of these are non-renewable resources, such as mineral fuels, that are difficult to replenish on a short time scale. Large deposits of fossil fuels are obtained from the Earth's crust, consisting of coal, petroleum, natural gas and methane clathrate. These deposits are used by humans both for energy production and as feedstock for chemical production. Mineral ore bodies have also been formed in Earth's crust through a process of Ore genesis, resulting from actions of erosion and plate tectonics. These bodies form concentrated sources for many metals and other useful elements. The Earth's biosphere produces many useful biological products for humans, including (but far from limited to) food, wood, pharmaceuticals, oxygen, and the recycling of many organic wastes. The land-based ecosystem depends upon topsoil and fresh water, and the oceanic ecosystem depends upon dissolved nutrients washed down from the land. Humans also live on the land by using building materials to construct shelters. In 1993, human use of land is approximately: Land use| Arable land| Permanent crops| Permanent pastures| Forests and woodland| Urban areas| Other| Percentage| 13.13%| 4.71%| 26%| 32%| 1.5%| 30%|

Natural and environmental hazards
Large areas of the Earth's surface are subject to extreme weather such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes, or typhoons that dominate life in those areas. From 1980–2000, these events caused an average of 11,800 deaths per year. Many places are subject to earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes, sinkholes, blizzards, floods, droughts, wildfires, and other calamities and disasters. Many localized areas are subject to human-made pollution of the air and water, acid rain and toxic substances, loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of wildlife, species extinction, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion, and introduction of invasive species. According to the United Nations, a scientific consensus exists linking human activities to global warming due to industrial carbon dioxide emissions. This is predicted to produce changes such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, more extreme temperature ranges, significant changes in weather and a global rise in average sea levels. Humans now play a key role in the biosphere, with the large human population dominating many of Earth's ecosystems. This has resulted in a widespread, on-going extinction of other species during the present geological epoch, now known as the Holocene extinction. The large scale loss of species caused by human influence since the 1950s has been called a biotic crisis, with an estimated 10% of the total species lost as of 2007. At current rates, about 30% of species are at risk of extinction in the next hundred years. The Holocene extinction event is the result of habitat destruction, the widespread distribution of invasive species, hunting, and climate change. In the present day, human activity has had a significant impact on the surface of the planet. More than a third of the land surface has been modified by human actions, and humans use about 20% of global primary production. The concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased by close to 30% since the start of the Industrial Revolution. The consequences of a persistent biotic crisis have been predicted to last for at least five million years. It could result in a decline in biodiversity and homogenization of biotas, accompanied by a proliferation of species that are opportunistic, such as pests and weeds. Novel species may also emerge; in particular taxa that prosper in human-dominated ecosystems may rapidly diversify into many new species. Microbes are likely to benefit from the increase in nutrient-enriched environmental niches. However, no new species of existing large vertebrates are likely to arise and food chains will probably be shortened. There are multiple scenarios for known risks that can have a global impact on the planet. From the perspective of humanity, these can be subdivided into survivable risks and terminal risks. Risks that humanity pose to itself include the misuse of nanotechnology, a nuclear holocaust, warfare with a programmed super intelligence, a genetically engineered disease, or perhaps a disaster caused by a physics experiment. Similarly, several natural events may pose a doomsday threat, including a highly virulent disease, the impact of an asteroid or comet, runaway greenhouse effect, and resource depletion. There may also be the possibility of an infestation by an extra-terrestrial life form. The actual odds of these scenarios are difficult if not impossible to deduce.

Should the human race become extinct, then the various features assembled by humanity will begin to decay. The largest structures have an estimated decay half-life of about 1,000 years. The last surviving structures would most likely be open pit mines, large landfills, major highways, wide canal cuts, and earth-fill flank dams.

Man-made global warming
Global warming refers to the warming caused by human technology since the 19th century. Global warming reflects abnormal variations to the expected climate within the Earth's atmosphere and subsequent effects on other parts of the Earth, such as in the ice caps over durations ranging from decades to millions of years. According to the UN’s Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), climate disasters are on the rise. Around 70 per cent of disasters are now climate related – up from around 50 present from two decades ago. These disasters take a heavier human toll and come with a higher price tag. In the last decade, 2.4 billion people were affected by climate related disasters, compared to 1.7 billion in the previous decade and the cost of responding to disasters has risen tenfold between 1992 and 2008. Destructive sudden heavy rains, intense tropical storms, repeated flooding and droughts are likely to increase, as will the vulnerability of local communities in the absence of strong concerted action. Sea level rise may completely inundate certain areas. It has been suggested that runaway global warming (runaway climate change) might cause the climate on Earth to become like Venus, which would make it uninhabitable. In less extreme scenarios it could cause the end of civilization, as we know it. According to a UN climate report, the Himalayan glaciers that are the sources of Asia's biggest rivers - Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween and Yellow - could disappear by 2350 as temperatures rise (an initial announcement of that report erroneously stated the date as 2035).Approximately three billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers, which is almost half of the current human population (see Environmental migrant). The Himalayan system, which includes outlying subranges, stretches across: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, Burma, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers, Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Yangtze, Mekong, Salween and Yellow River, rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin in India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by droughts in coming decades. In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 500 million people. The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains, Cascade Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected. According to the California Department of Water Resources, if more water supplies are not found by 2020, California residents will face a water shortfall nearly as great as the amount consumed today. Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded. In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa. James Lovelock, creator of the Gaia hypothesis, in his book The Revenge of Gaia (2006), has suggested that the elimination of rain forests, and the falling planetary biodiversity is removing the homeostatic negative feedback mechanisms that maintain climate stability by reducing the effects of greenhouse gas emissions (particularly carbon dioxide). With the heating of the oceans, the extension of the thermocline layer into Arctic and Antarctic waters is preventing the overturning and nutrient enrichment necessary for algal blooms of phytoplankton on which the ecosystems of these areas depend. With the loss of phytoplankton and tropical rain forests, two of the main carbon dioxide sinks for reducing global warming; he suggests a runaway positive feedback effect could cause tropical deserts to cover most of the world's tropical regions, and the disappearance of polar ice caps, posing a serious challenge to global civilization. Using scenario analysis, the Global Scenario Group (GSG), a coalition of international scientists convened by Paul Ruskin, developed a series of possible futures for the world as it enters a Planetary Phase of Civilization. One scenario involves the complete breakdown of civilization as the effects of global warming become more pronounced, competition for scarce resources increases, and the rift between the poor and the wealthy widens. The GSG’s other scenarios, such as Policy Reform, Eco-Communalism, and Great Transition avoid this societal collapse and eventually result in environmental and social sustainability. They claim the outcome is dependent on human choice and the possible formation of a global citizen’s movement which could influence the trajectory of global development. Ecological disaster

An ecological disaster, such as world crop failure and collapse of ecosystem services, could be induced by the present trends of overpopulation, economic development, and non-sustainable agriculture. Most of these scenarios involve one or more of the following: Holocene extinction event, scarcity of water that could lead to approximately one half of the Earth's population being without safe drinking water, pollinator decline, overfishing, massive deforestation, desertification, climate change, or massive water pollution episodes. A very recent threat in this direction is colony collapse disorder, a phenomenon that might foreshadow the imminent extinction of the Western honeybee. As the bee plays a vital role in pollination, its extinction would severely disrupt the food chain. World population and agricultural crisis

The 20th century saw a rapid increase in human population due to medical developments and massive increase in agricultural productivity made by the Green Revolution. Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. The Green Revolution in agriculture helped food production to keep pace with worldwide population growth or actually enabled population growth. The energy for the Green Revolution was provided by fossil fuels in the form of fertilizers (natural gas), pesticides (oil), and hydrocarbon fuelled irrigation. David Pimentel, professor of ecology and agriculture at Cornell University, and Mario Giampietro, senior researcher at the National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), place in their study Food, Land, Population and the U.S. Economy the maximum U.S. population for a sustainable economy at 200 million. To achieve a sustainable economy and avert disaster, the United States must reduce its population by at least one-third, and world population will have to be reduced by two-thirds, says the study. The authors of this study believe that the mentioned agricultural crisis will only begin to impact us after 2020, and will not become critical until 2050. Geologist Dale Allen Pfeiffer claims that coming decades could see spiralling food prices without relief and massive starvation on a global level such as never experienced before. Wheat is humanity's 3rd most produced cereal. Extant fungal infections such as Ug99 (a kind of stem rust) can cause 100% crop losses in most modern varieties. Little or no treatment is possible and infection spreads on the wind. Should the world's large grain producing areas become infected then there would be a crisis in wheat availability leading to price spikes and shortages in other food products. CONCLUSION:

Cite This Document

Related Documents

  • Planet Earth

    ...ENGLISH CLASS 2013 PLANET EARTH OUR PLANET TEACHER ERICKA SANTIESTEBAN COLEGIO LA ROCA Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets. It is sometimes referred to as the world, the Blue Planet...

    Read More
  • NOVA: Earth from Space

    ...NOVA “Earth From Space” 1. They describe at least three teleconnections in the film. The movie talks about sandstorms in the Sahara Desert transforming the rainforest across the globe. Also explained are the waterfalls under the sea in Antarctica, leading to a feeding frenzy in the ocean by the equator. Finally, they talked about stre...

    Read More
  • Earth Science Test Questions

    ... 1. What do earth scientists study? (Points : 3)        plant cells        machines        farming methods        oceans 2. Underwater earthquakes may cause which of the following? (Points : 3)        hurricane        volcano        asteroid impact        tsunami 3. Many scient...

    Read More
  • The Biogeochemical Cycles of Earth

    ...The Biogeochemical cycles of Earth Earth with its many species and abundant live is a Biosphere in flux. As time passes with the seasons, the earth turning upon it's axis and the movement of the sun's rays North to South, makes it a place of movement and cycles. There are four cycles that are considered the four major biogeochemical cyc...

    Read More
  • Earth Hour Campaign

    ...in develops to the organisation to another phase. (Adapted from WWF official website,21 January 2008) Introduction to Earth Hour Earth Hour (EH) is a meaningful campaign organised by WWF with the aims to raise public awareness about global climate changes. This campaign was launche...

    Read More
  • Disasters: Earth and Great Natural Resources

    ...DISASTERS We all crave for a peaceful and prosperous living in this world. But nature is not always as tranquil as a calm lake or as azure as a cloudless sky. Nature endows us with a considerable number of great natural resources that we exploit to develop our lives in order to keep up with the rapid change of our own country. However, ...

    Read More
  • Earth Systems

    ...things to survive. A stable environment is the key to survival. Through-out many years, things Earths systems have been changing drastically. The outcomes of change can be good or bad. The Earth is warming faster than ever before, and humans are to blame. Ever since the industrial revolution, (which began during the mid-1800s) humans had affecte...

    Read More
  • earth

    ...There is a fact that our planet is protected and supported by the tree all over the world. With the recent uncontrolled forest exploiting, some people think that this possibly leads to the end of the earth. In my point of view in this essay, if people keep destroying this green natural resource, they will soon face many serious consequences s...

    Read More

Discover the Best Free Essays on StudyMode

Conquer writer's block once and for all.

High Quality Essays

Our library contains thousands of carefully selected free research papers and essays.

Popular Topics

No matter the topic you're researching, chances are we have it covered.