The Duel for North America
1.France Finds a Foothold in Canada 1.France got a late start in colonizing America (like England and Holland). 1.French were tardy due because during the 16th century they suffered foreign wars and issues at home. 1.To help ease Catholic-Protestant feuding, the Edict of Nantes (1598) was issued. It granted religious toleration to the Huguenots (French Protestants). 2.King Louis XIV took an active interest in France’s lands overseas—he wanted more. 1.In 1608, France established Quebec, overlooking the St. Lawrence River. 3.So, the French landed in the St. Lawrence River in what is today’s Quebec. 1.Samuel de Champlain was the leader of the expedition and “Father of New France.” 2.Champlain was on good terms with the local Huron Indians. He helped the Huron defeat their enemy, the Iroquois (they hampered French efforts into the Ohio Valley later) 3.His alliance with the Huron would become a problem later with the British in the French and Indian War. 4.New France didn’t have loads of immigrants (as did New England). 1.The French peasants were too poor to get themselves across the ocean. 2.The Huguenots were not permitted to emigrate. 2.New France Fans Out 1.New France (Canada) was built on the beaver skin trade. 1.Young beaver hunters (coureurs de bois or “runners of the woods”) paddled canoes into trapping lands, worked with the Indians, and hauled out their beaver skins for sale. 1.They were also known as voyageurs. 2.Place-names were left behind like Baton Rouge (red stick), Terre Haute (high land), Des Moines (the monks), and Grand Teton (big breast). 3.Their Indian friends were decimated by the whites’ diseases. 4.The beaver population eventually began to run thin. 2.Catholic missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity. 3.New France grew. 1.Detroit (the “City of Straits”) was founded in 1701 by Antoine Cadillac to help fend off the English from moving into the Ohio Valley. 2.Louisiana was founded, in 1682, by Robert de LaSalle (murdered by crew in Spanish Texas), to halt Spanish expansion into the area near the Gulf of Mexico. It reached from the headwaters of the Mississippi River down to the Gulf of Mexico. 3.The fertile lands of Illinois were New France’s breadbasket. There they had forts and trading posts at Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. 3.The Clash of Empires 1.England got into some mini-wars in the 1700s with various other nations. Bottom line: it was England vs. France/Spain; England won. 1.King William’s War and Queen Anne’s War 1.The English colonists fought the French coureurs de bois and their Indian allies. Both sides recruited Indian allies. 2.Both sides agreed that America wasn't worth risking regular troops. 3.Pro-France Indians ransacked Schenectady, New York, and Deerfield, Mass. 4.The British failed to take Quebec and Montreal, but did temporarily seize Port Royal. 5.The English won the war and a peace treaty was signed at Utrecht (1713) 1.It gave the British Acadia (renamed as Nova Scotia), Newfoundland, and Hudson Bay. 2.It pinned the French down to the settlements along the St. Lawrence River. 3.It gave the British limited trading rights with Spanish Florida. 2.The War of Jenkins’s Ear 1.A Spanish commander cut off an English Captain Jenkins' ear. 2.The war was small and played out in the Caribbean and the buffer colony of Georgia.
3.It merged with the larger War of Austrian Succession and became known as King George's War. 4.The British invaded Ft. Louisbourg (guarding the entrance to New France) and took it. 5.The peace treaty gave Louisbourg back to the French. The English were outraged. 4.George Washington Inaugurates War with France 1.The British, French, and Spanish were in mini-wars, on and off. The Ohio Valley would be the battleground (and prize)for the decisive war (the French and Indian War). 1.The land was sandwiched between British and French colonies. Where's the border? was the question. 2.The land was very fertile and therefore very...
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