The Deviant Nature of Obesity
Obesity has become increasingly more prominent in American society. The Unites States has even been termed an overweight nation. Some twenty to thirty percent of American adults are now considered obese (Hwang 1999 and Hirsch et al 1997). With this in mind, Americans constantly look around themselves determining their weight status as well as that of those around them. While some Americans do fit the healthy category, others enter the underweight, overweight, and even obese categories, all of which can be unhealthy.
Obesity can be termed deviant for a variety of reasons. Not only is it unhealthy, but it is also a widely unaccepted behavior in US society. The obese are labeled "
obscene, lazy, slothful, and gluttonous" (Adler and Adler 2000). People are ostracized, often never to regain full societal acceptance. According to Hammarlund et al (1998) prevention is necessary to decrease prevalence of obesity because few adults who actually do lose weight are able to keep it off.
Obesity is attributable to many factors, nature and nurture included. Some individuals are inclined to blame the obese individual for his or her health status. Still others blame the heredity and/or ethnicity of the person. Many place the blame on more environmental sources. These might include, but are not limited to, education level, peer group, and scocio-economic factors. The American Medical Association identifies genetic, environmental, and psychological influences on obesity (Hwang 1999).
According to the American Medical Association, being obese means that 30% of your ideal body weight is constituted by fat. As a general idea, the American Dietetic Association provides these thresholds for obese weight. Certain stipulations, such as muscle content and build would alter the given thresholds.
In Feet and Inches
Obesity occurs when a person has a greater caloric intake than he or she burns during that day (Hwang 1999). David F. Williamson of The New England Journal of Medicine (1999) states that doctors need to encourage greater weight loss in obese patients due to the fact "
that obese people are twice as likely to die from any cause as people of normal weight." This creates a greater susceptibility to a variety of health problems including Heart Disease and Stroke, Type II Diabetes, Non-insulin Dependent Diabetes, Cancer, Sleep Apnea, Osteoarthritis, and Gallbladder Disease (Hwang 1999). Allison et al claim that the number of average annual deaths attributable to obesity is 324,940 in the United States alone. Among these deaths and health problems, direct health care costs solely due to obesity (excluding obese who are sick or have died due to smoking, genetic, and other health factors) includes nearly 5% annually.
Treatment often consists of combinations of diet, exercise, behavioral modifications, and some medications (1999). It is important for these obese individuals to receive the treatments available to them. Allison et al state that obesity is a major cause of mortality in the US and it substantially increases morbidity and impairs quality of life.
As treatment options increase, obesity also becomes less acceptable. As of late, people have begun resorting to procedures such as liposuction to reduce fat content on the body. While these procedures in themselves may not be accepted, they reduce the risk of the obese being labeled deviant for their status.
Adler and Adler (51) state that being labeled deviant means that one has violated societal norms and has been labeled for his or her actions. Norms are codes of behavior that guide people into what is socially acceptable. Further, obesity can be termed a folkway, or a norm that is based on...
Cited: Adler, Patricia; Adler, Peter. Constructions of Deviance Social Power, Context, and Interaction. 3rd ed. United States: Wadsworth, 2000.
Allison, David B.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Steven, June. "Annual Deaths Attributable to Obesity in the United States." Journal of the American Medical Association October 27, 1999.
Allison, David B. "The Direct Health Care Costs of Obesity in the United States." Journal of the American Medical Association 282 October 13, 1999: 1316.
Hirsch, Jules; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Rosenbaum, Michael. "Obesity." The New England Journal of Medicine August 7, 1997. 396-407.
Hwang, Mi Young. "Are you obese?" The Journal of the American Medical Association October 27, 1999 1596.
Wardlaw, Gordon M. Contemporary Nutrition. 4th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education, 2000.
Williamson, David F. "The prevention of obesity." The New England Journal of Medicine October 7, 1999 140-141.
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