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The Development of Sociology

By tinetot112909 Jun 22, 2013 3066 Words
B1. The Development of Sociology in the world
The term "sociology" was incited in the 19th century by the French thinker Auguste Comte in 1838. Comte had earlier used the term 'social physics,' but that term had been appropriated by others, notably Adolphe Quetelet. Comte hoped to unify history, psychology and economics. Comte believed society passed through three (3) stages: Theological, Metaphysical, and Scientific to acquire knowledge, in which the latter is referred to as Logical Positivism or positive science), often simply called "positivism." Comte argued that if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Comte has come to be viewed as the "Father of Sociology." The camp of Logical Positivism, which was led by the Vienna Circle, tended to adopt scientific methods in the realm of social sciences, while others believe human behavior is an interaction, which cannot be isolated as a physical event such as that in the physical sciences. From a sociological perspective, using a "positivistic" approach to understanding human behavior entails the use of strictly quantitative analysis techniques (Wikipedia) Sociology is scientific study of society .Scientific study means which should not include phenomenon based on imagination or beliefs or on supernatural power. Before 19th century like India other European countries also had not have right of free expression. Like Brahmins of India, Pope in Europe was supreme power. To exploit the masses these Supremes had propagated the blind faiths and beliefs and were selling tickets of heaven. King can do no wrong, and their words were laws .The philosophers, social scientist, and thinkers were not in position to raise the voice against these kings and religious leaders. The life of common man was very pathetic. There were so many problems in every society. During that phase some important events had taken place in European society, which influenced the political, social and economic conditions of society. Due to this the great social change had been noticed. The three main events occurred in social structure which is as follow.

1-Renaissance 2-French revolution 3-Industrial Revolution of England  
1-Renaissance was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread to England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and other countries in the late 1400's and eventually came to an end about 1600. The word Renaissance comes from the Latin word reassure and refers to the act of being reborn. During the Renaissance, many European scholars and artists, especially in Italy, studied the learning and art of ancient Greece and Rome. They wanted to recapture the spirit of the Greek and Roman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and Rome are often called classical antiquity. Arabs had taken an interest in Greek and Roman antiquity, especially science, but in Europe such knowledge became lost. The Renaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning. The Renaissance overlapped the end of a period in European history called the Middle Ages, which began in the 400's. The leaders of the Renaissance rejected many of the attitudes and ideas of the Middle Ages. For example, European thinkers in medieval times believed that people's chief responsibility was to pray to God and concentrate on saving their souls. They thought that society was filled with evil temptations. Renaissance thinkers, on the other hand, emphasized people's responsibilities and duties to the society in which they lived. They believed that society could civilize people rather than make them wicked. During the Middle Ages, the most important branch of learning was theology (the study of God). However, many Renaissance thinkers paid greater attention to the study of humanity. They examined the great accomplishments of different cultures, particularly those of ancient Greece and Rome. Medieval artists painted human figures that looked stiff and unrealistic and which often served symbolic religious purposes. But Renaissance artists stressed the beauty of the human body. They tried to capture the dignity and majesty of human beings in lifelike paintings and sculptures. The changes brought about by the Renaissance happened gradually and did not immediately affect most Europeans. Even at the height of the movement, which occurred during the late 1400's and early 1500's, the new ideas were accepted by relatively few people. But the influence of the Renaissance on future generations was to prove immense in many fields--from art and literature to education, political science, and history. Because of this fact, most scholars have for hundreds of years agreed that the modern era of human history began with the Renaissance.(World book-Milleniu200) The contribution of many thinkers like Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Hume and Kant was great in all fields of science, logic and humanity.

2-French revolution-In 1792, during the French Revolution, France became one of the first nations to overthrow its king and set up a republic. During the American Revolution, people repeatedly urged the British government to conciliate the colonies. They believed that the colonists should be allowed to enjoy all the rights of English citizens. Burke was born in Dublin, Ireland. He worked for betterment of English-Irish relations and Irish conditions, and opposed the slave trade. He achieved fame in his attempt to improve British administration in India (Hastings, Warren (1732-1818), was the first governor general of India. He extended British rule in India and improved the courts and tax systems. He also encouraged the study of Indian culture).Though he had worked before to decrease the power of rulers, few bitterly criticized the French Revolution. They denounced its injustice to individuals, attacks on religion, and attempts to build a completely new social order. Some thinkers expressed hostility in parliamentary speeches and writings, chiefly in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which greatly influenced British policy and opinion. Before French revolution there were three established assemblies, who were looking after the work of administration. The members of royal family, and other highly rich and prosperous families, were members of this First Assembly .The Second assembly was inclusion of all clergymen, arches and Bishops .The conscious common men of middle class family were members of Third Assembly. All the important decisions were taken and governed by first two assemblies. Gradually the members conscious common men of middle class families decided to raise their voice against this monarchy and exploitations. On 17th June 1789 people of this third assembly ,declared themselves as a" Real Assembly" and eliminated the rights ,powers and privileges of king, monarchs and bishops. In 1792, during the French Revolution, France became one of the first nations to overthrow its king and set up a republic. A few years later, Napoleon Bonaparte seized power. He conquered much of Europe before he was finally defeated. During World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945), France was a battleground for Allied armies and invading German forces. Napoleon Bonaparte accepted the power of this Real Assembly . During this period good and capable intellectuals were appointed at important posts and places .The freedom of expression and theory of fair justice had come in existence. This intellectuals revolution was imitated by other countries of Europe and demand for freedom of expression was spread all over the world.. 3-Industrial Revolution of England-The meaning of Industrial Revolution is the economy of inventions discoveries and industrial development, which works at the place of old traditional economy. With the help of great use of machines, the large scale production becomes possible. During the 1700's and early 1800's, great changes took place in the lives and work of people in several parts of the world. These changes resulted from the development of industrialization. The term Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700's. It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800's. By the mid-1800's, industrialization had become widespread in Western Europe and the northeastern United States. Some of this increase in production resulted from the introduction of power driven machinery and the development of factory organization. Before the revolution, manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines. Most people worked at home in rural areas. A few worked in shops in towns as part of associations called guilds. The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop. Power-driven machines replaced handwork, and factories developed as the best way of bringing together the machines and the workers to operate them. As the Industrial Revolution grew, private investors and financial institutions were needed to provide money for the further expansion of industrialization. Financiers and banks thus became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. For the first time in European history, wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and organization of manufacturing. Historians have disagreed on the significance of the Industrial Revolution. Some have emphasized that the importance of the revolution was in the great increase in the production of goods. They argue that this increase did more during the 1800's to raise people's standard of living than all the actions of legislatures and trade unions. Other historians have stressed the negative parts of the revolution. They point to the overcrowded and unsanitary housing and the terrible working conditions created by rapid industrialization in the cities. Over production and its supply was new problem under industrial revolution. Due to problem of over production England was passing the age of economic crisis. In between there was" battle of waterloo" between France and England. Waterloo, Battle of, fought on June 18, 1815, was the final battle of the French military genius, Napoleon Bonaparte. The battle took place at Waterloo, a small town near Brussels. The two armies were about equal in size. Napoleon had about 74,000 troops, and superior cavalry and artillery. Both sides lost many killed and wounded in the battle. The French suffered about 40,000 casualties and the allies about 23,000. Over population, unemployment and capitalism were other responsible factors created by industrialization. Labor resentment was increasing day by day. Labor class had neither any right of voting t nor any other participation in Parliamentary affairs was allowed. In 1832 England's king George 4th passed the regulation about the labor participation and representation in Parliament's affairs. Many laws were made by king for the benefit and welfare of labors. In 1837 when George 4th expired, the Great Britain rule was given to Queen Victoria. She made efforts to make good balance between labor and capitalist. During her regime, once again relationship between England and France had have improved. The development of new ideology of Malthusian, Darwin, Ricardo, Mendel, J.S. Mill, and other intellectuals, had given new thinking to Society. The origin of Sociology in France and England was influenced by ideology of these thinkers.

Origin and Development of sociology in Western Countries
At the time of reconstruction of European society many thinkers had started taking shelter in Italy. This was first time when they openly expressed their opposition against religious beliefs. Their thinking and interpretation of social phenomenon was based on logical ideology. Europe had long back history record of economics and political science. This was time when thinkers took equal interest in social events. During the English Civil War, Hobbes fled to the European continent. In this work, he denied that people are naturally social beings. He argued instead that people are basically selfish. During that time Hugo Grotius tried to establish some social laws which influence the human behavior. According to Johan Lock the principle work of state is to establish good relationship between man and state and to make the systematic social life. Without social organization political life can not be systematic. During this period instead of giving importance to social life, rather they stressed much importance on moral ethics of society, In 1824 first time Saint Cymene put stress on systematical study of social science. With the birth of new middle class class gave new horizon to traditional social structure. The famous economist James Mill felt the need of one complete social science where all subjects can be studied. Comte, Auguste (1798-1857), was a French social thinker and philosopher. He founded the philosophy of positivism, and originated a concept of social science known as sociology. The father of Sociology Comte, Auguste basically economist, paid serious attention to views of Mill and Cymene. He began to write introduction, on theory of social science. Comte sought to discover the laws that he believed governed the evolution of the mind. In his six-volume work, The Course of Positive Philosophy (1830-1842), he framed his "law of the three states." This law advanced the idea that people try to understand phenomena in three ways. Comte believed that people first seek a theological (supernatural) explanation; then a metaphysical (abstract) explanation; and finally a positive explanation. The positive explanation is derived from an objective examination of the phenomena. Comte believed that students should concern themselves only with phenomena that have an objective, "positive," existence. This belief forms a basis of positivism. Comte regarded all social thought as an interrelated whole, the laws of which can be found by assembling what he considered the facts. His ideas have influenced students of historical and social theory, and of criminology, and such authors as Herbert Spencer and John Stuart Mill, who were seeking a "science of society." In the initial stage of sociology, the context of sociology was not clear. Comte wanted to introduce sociology in that form, where study of social system and social progress can be done properly. With the efforts of Comte, the other thinker Herbert Spencer too attracted the attention of people by giving the book named" Sociology”. This is ever fist book named Sociology was published. The systematic and scientific study of sociology was done by French Sociologist Emile Durkheim. Emile (1858-1917), was a French sociologist. His theories and writings helped establish the foundations of modern sociology. Durkheim disagreed with most social theorists of the late 1800's because they thought that individual psychology was the basis of sociology. Durkheim regarded sociology as the study of the society that surrounds and influences the individual. Durkheim explained his theories in his book The Rules of Sociological Method (1895). In The Division of Labor (1893), Durkheim developed the theory that societies are bound together by two sources of unity. He called these sources mechanical solidarity and organic solidarity. Mechanical solidarity refers to similarities that many people in the society share, such as values and religious beliefs. Organic solidarity results from the division of labor into specialized jobs. Durkheim believed that the division of labor makes people depend on one another and thus helps create unity in a society. Durkheim studied thousands of cases of suicide to demonstrate his theory that a person commits suicide because of the influence of society. He explained this theory in Suicide (1897). In the end of 19th century the study of sociology was considered very useful one. Many thinkers like Karl Marx, Tonnies, Simmel, Virkant etc explained its scope and said what subjects should be included in Sociology. One another Sociologist who has great contribution in development of Sociology is Max Weber. He conceived many theories of social actions and cleared that how Social changes an social actions are interrelated.. In sociology, Marx's work is also regarded with increasing respect. Without his contributions, sociology would not have developed into what it is today. Marx wrote on social classes, on the relationship between the economy and the state, and on the principles that underlie a political or economic system. In America, over the centuries, numerous whites, Indians, and blacks intermarried. Today, most Latin Americans are of mixed ancestry. They are chiefly of Indian and white descent or of black and white descent. Most other Latin Americans are of unmixed Indian, black, or white ancestry. Such mixed cultured country like America felt more need of study of Sociology. In 1876, Yale University introduced this subject of study at higher education level. The contribution of American thinkers in development of sociology is comparatively high. Among them important are Ward, Sumner, Giddings, Sorokin, Park, Burgess, Charles Cooley, MacIver, Ross, Parsons, Sutherland, Merton, etc. After America, in 1889 France had introduced it, as a subject of study in its universities. Lately England introduced this subject in 1907.

Development of Sociology In India
In the beginning of 20th century, the new educational system was introduced in India. During national freedom movements, due to increasing social awareness, Indian leaders and philosophers realized the need of systematic organization of social life. During that time psychology, political science, economics, History, Geography were mainly taught in Indian universities. In 1919, First time Bombay University introduced separate department of Sociology. An English Sociologist, Patric Geddes was appointed as Head of the department of Sociology .In 1920 Mysore university also introduced it as optional subject. In 1921 Lucknow University introduced it along with department of economics. The department of Sociology was established in 1939 under Pune University, Dr Iravati Karvey was appointed as head of the subject. DR Ghuray was than HOD of Bombay university. After independence in 1947 the popularity of Sociology had been increased. In between of 1947 to 160 the subject was introduced in almost all the universities of India. The subject matter of sociology was until not decided, because teaching of sociology was done by non-sociological teaching people. The teachers from England were invited for sociology lectures. As they too were impressed by economics and anthropology, .so they could not gave desired direction to this subject. After 1960 due to increasing popularity of the subject, its teaching was started at graduate and post graduate level. At present it is not only important and useful subject of teaching, but it has wider scope of research and research related projects. Various important government projects are working under this banner. With the help of many sociological research methods, other subject like philosophy ,economics ,political science, Geography are doing researches The main contributors of sociology in India are Dr Radha Kamal Mukherjee, .G.S.Ghuray, Iravati Karve,S.C.ube, P.N.Prabhu, Yogender Singh, Shrinivas ,Leela Dube etc.

Reference: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Development_of_sociology_in_the_world

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