B1. The Development of Sociology in the world
The term "sociology" was incited in the 19th century by the French thinker Auguste Comte in 1838. Comte had earlier used the term 'social physics,' but that term had been appropriated by others, notably Adolphe Quetelet. Comte hoped to unify history, psychology and economics. Comte believed society passed through three (3) stages: Theological, Metaphysical, and Scientific to acquire knowledge, in which the latter is referred to as Logical Positivism or positive science), often simply called "positivism." Comte argued that if one could grasp this progress, one could prescribe the remedies for social ills. Comte has come to be viewed as the "Father of Sociology." The camp of Logical Positivism, which was led by the Vienna Circle, tended to adopt scientific methods in the realm of social sciences, while others believe human behavior is an interaction, which cannot be isolated as a physical event such as that in the physical sciences. From a sociological perspective, using a "positivistic" approach to understanding human behavior entails the use of strictly quantitative analysis techniques (Wikipedia) Sociology is scientific study of society .Scientific study means which should not include phenomenon based on imagination or beliefs or on supernatural power. Before 19th century like India other European countries also had not have right of free expression. Like Brahmins of India, Pope in Europe was supreme power. To exploit the masses these Supremes had propagated the blind faiths and beliefs and were selling tickets of heaven. King can do no wrong, and their words were laws .The philosophers, social scientist, and thinkers were not in position to raise the voice against these kings and religious leaders. The life of common man was very pathetic. There were so many problems in every society. During that phase some important events had taken place in European society, which influenced the political, social and economic conditions of society. Due to this the great social change had been noticed. The three main events occurred in social structure which is as follow.
1-Renaissance 2-French revolution 3-Industrial Revolution of England
1-Renaissance was a great cultural movement that began in Italy during the early 1300's. It spread to England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and other countries in the late 1400's and eventually came to an end about 1600. The word Renaissance comes from the Latin word reassure and refers to the act of being reborn. During the Renaissance, many European scholars and artists, especially in Italy, studied the learning and art of ancient Greece and Rome. They wanted to recapture the spirit of the Greek and Roman cultures in their own artistic, literary, and philosophic works. The cultures of ancient Greece and Rome are often called classical antiquity. Arabs had taken an interest in Greek and Roman antiquity, especially science, but in Europe such knowledge became lost. The Renaissance thus represented a rebirth of these cultures and is therefore also known as the revival of antiquity or the revival of learning. The Renaissance overlapped the end of a period in European history called the Middle Ages, which began in the 400's. The leaders of the Renaissance rejected many of the attitudes and ideas of the Middle Ages. For example, European thinkers in medieval times believed that people's chief responsibility was to pray to God and concentrate on saving their souls. They thought that society was filled with evil temptations. Renaissance thinkers, on the other hand, emphasized people's responsibilities and duties to the society in which they lived. They believed that society could civilize people rather than make them wicked. During the Middle Ages, the most important branch of learning was theology (the study of God). However, many Renaissance thinkers paid greater attention to the study of humanity. They examined the great accomplishments of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document