December 1, 2014
Chapter 10 Chapter ten introduces the topic of spread other cells. A spreadsheet consists of a table of cells arranged into rows and columns and referred to by the X and Y locations. X locations, the columns, are nord sheets, A spreadsheet is an interactive computer application program for organization, analysis and storage of data in tabular form. Spreadsheets devel computerized oped as simulations of paper accounting worksheets. The program operates on data represented as cells of an array, organized in rows and columns. Each cell of the array is a model–view–controller element that can contain either numeric or text data, or the results of formulas that automatically calculate and display a value based on the contents of mally represented by letters, "A", "B", "C", etc., while rows are normally represented by numbers, 1, 2, 3, etc. A single cell can be referred to by addressing its row and column, "C10" for instance. Additionally, spreadsheets have the concept of a range, a group of cells, normally contiguous. For instance, one can refer to the first ten cells in the first column with the range "A1:A10". This system of cell references was introduced in VisiCalc, and known as "A1 notation".The ability to chain formulas together is what gives a spreadsheet its power. Many problems can be broken down into a series of individual mathematical step, and these can be assigned to individual formulas in cells. Some of these formulas can apply to ranges as well, like the SUM function that adds up all the numbers within a range.Spreadsheets share many
principles and traits of databases, but spreadsheets and databases are not the same thing. A spreadsheet is essentially just one table, whereas a database is a collection of many tables with machinereadable semantic relationships between them.A spreadsheet program is one of the main components of an office productivity suite, which usually also contains a word processor, a presentation program, and a database management system. Programs within a suite use similar commands for similar functions. Usually sharing data between the components is easier than with a nonintegrated collection of functionally equivalent programs. This was particularly an advantage at a time when many personal computer systems used textmode displays and commands, instead of a graphical user interface.
Chapter 11 Chapter 11 talks about the use of Multimedia tools,Multimedia is in essence a presentation of information that incorporates multiple media such as text, audio, graphics, and animation. The representations can be redundant, incorporating the same content, or complementary, offering additional information. Multimedia need not be computerized, but computers offer some of the most seamless multimedia presentations. Moreover, digital multimedia, such as a simple CDROM, can offer teachers greater ease of presentation.Integration of multimedia into instruction can help to reduce curriculum barriers and improve learning for all students. This article provides a basic introduction to multimedia and describes how it can be used to support student learning.Digital texts can be read aloud using recorded human voice or synthetic texttospeech programs. CDROM storybooks offer digital text in combination with features such as animations, illustrations, speech, and sound. For example, a CDROM storybook might offer the story text together with animations, vocabulary definitions, and sound effects. Some storybooks incorporate an audio version of the text.Video/videodiscs offer a means to contextualize curriculum content and instruction across the curriculum. Hypermedia refers to hyperlinked multimedia—the linkage of text, audio, ...
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