The Crusades: The First Crusade

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The crusades were holy wars fought by Christians in Europe and Muslims in the Middle East between 1096 and 1270. Generally, military campaigns against the Middle East trying to recover holy lands. The Crusades were often controlled by the Pope who had the power to unite all the Catholic nations against a common enemy. Europeans were willing to fight not only for Jerusalem but many reasons. They believed it would give them forgiveness of sins, a chance to travel and make money, defend the Byzantine Empire from the Turks, opportunity to get new land in the Middle East and opening trade routes between Europe and Middle East. There were nine crusades fought by Christians against Muslims in the Middle East.
The first crusade began in 1096, which were mostly thieves and criminals. This was the first successful crusade in taking Jerusalem. Pope Urban II wanted the Christians to go to war against the Muslims. So they can defend the Byzantine Empire against the Seljuk Turks and to take over holy sites from the Muslims. The pope promised, “All who die by the way, whether by land or sea, or in battle against the Muslims, shall have immediate forgiveness of sins.” The sixty thousand crusaders mostly marched on foot or rode on horseback to the holy land. They captured Jerusalem and killed most of the non-Christians.
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It was led by King Richard, King Philips and the Frederick I. They started with three armies, which was thousands of men blessed by the pope. Most of Frederick’s army went home or got fever, because Frederick drowned from being thrown off his horse and his armor weighing so much. Phillips left his army behind and Richards’s army was attacked by Saladin. But Richard won the battle, defeating the Muslims. Richard negotiated a treaty because they did not capture Jerusalem. So the treaty allowed unarmed Christian pilgrims to make pilgrimages to the holy land, while it is still controlled by

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