Running head: COSTS AND BENEFITS OF MILITARY RESEARCH 1
The Costs and Benefits of Funding Military Research and Development Policy Public Policy Research Paper
The central issues when evaluating the overall the United States research and development policy are the characteristics of a public good. A public good by definition is one that has a zero marginal cost of providing the good an additional person and from which individuals cannot be excluded. Research and development policy contributes to the level of knowledge and technology of the entire country. Knowledge is in most cases, a public good under the aforementioned definition. Giving knowledge to an additional individual does not take away from the total amount of knowledge available, and exclusion from knowledge is often difficult to maintain. A market failure is often associated with public goods, and knowledge is not an exception. Regarding knowledge, and specifically research and development, the market fails to provide this good at adequate levels. The government then steps in to attempt to correct this failure through its research and development funding policy. The following paper details the costs and benefits incurred through funding research and development specifically within the realm of national defense. National defense is also a public good. The government provides national defense to correct the reality that if left uninfluenced, the market will not provide national defense at an adequate level. The U.S. government funds research and development in the area of defense at a much greater level than any other.
The Costs and Benefits of Funding Military Research and Development Policy Major policy initiatives were undertaken during the Reagan and Bush administrations in order to research and develop technologies that would aid in the Cold War. This was the era of Reagan’s arms stockpiling that pushed the defense budget to nearly three times the amount it is today, maxing out at just over $800 billion (Stiglitz, 2000). Policymakers were concerned with creating weapons and technology that were more sophisticated than those of the Soviet Union. Programs such as the semiconductor research consortium, SEMATECH, the Defense department’s Technology Reinvestment Program (TRP) and the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) grew out of these years all of which took advantage of defense funding to establish dual-use technologies that is technologies with specific uses to both the civilian market and the military. In 1986, the Federal Technology Transfer Act was established to allow federal laboratories to conduct cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs) with private firms. The Reagan and Bush era policies supported high technology research and development that related to both the civilian market and to the military.
President Clinton’s administration over the last five years has seen a steadily decreasing federal defense budget. With the Cold War over, and no single identified threat to national security, the focus of research and development policy has shifted. Under Clinton, the dual-use technology initiatives that began throughout the eighties were emphasized. The Clinton administration also sought to reform the procurement policies of the Department of Defense (DoD) to make them more appealing to private firms. The organization of research and development policy is centered on the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). This agency was established in February of 1958 as the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), the agency to handle research and development for the DoD. This is still the function of the agency some 42 years, and a few name flip-flops later. Its mission states that it exists to “develop imaginative, innovative and often high risk research ideas offering a significant technological impact” (Department of...
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