The Conquest of the Far West

Topics: Great Plains, Native Americans in the United States, Overseas Chinese Pages: 22 (7182 words) Published: September 8, 2013
Griffin Weiss

Mr. Arroyo

U.S. History II Advanced Placement

1 September 2013

Chapter 16 Outline: The Conquest of the Far West

The Societies of the Far West (434-441)

The Western Tribes

* Indian tribes were the most important group before the Anglo-American migration in the Far West * Western tribes developed several forms of civilization * More than 300,000 Indians lived along the pacific coast among them were Serrano, Chumash, Pomo, Maidu, Yurok, and Chinook * When the Spanish arrived disease and destruction followed for the Native tribes * By mid-nineteenth century 150,000 Indians remained, some lived within the Hispanic society with Mexican and Spanish settlers * Pueblos of the Southwest had lived largely as farmers and settled the land permanently long before the Spanish came there * Pueblos grew corn, built towns, had elaborate forms of irrigation, and participated in trade and commerce * Their relationship with the Spanish produced an alliance against the Apaches, Navajos, and Comanches of the area * Caste System

* Interaction between the Pueblos, Spanish, and Indian tribes created a caste system in the Southwest * Top were Spanish or Mexicans, who controlled trading and owned large estates * Pueblos were largely free but still below the Spanish

* Apaches, Navajos, and those who were captured or voluntarily left their tribes were at the bottom, they were called genizaros * This system represented Spanish pre-occupation
* Plains Indians
* This was the most widespread and diverse group of Indians in the west * Some formed alliances with each other, others were in constant conflict, some lived sedentary lives, some lived nomadic lives * Despite differences tribes shared traits such as their cultures were based on close and extended family networks and a close relationship with nature * Tribes were subdivided in bands of 500 people

* In each band men and women had separate roles, women’s roles were domestic and artistic: raising children, cooking, making clothes, gathering food, and creating many of the tribes pieces of art * Men were hunters and traders and supervised the religious and military life * Religion was centered around spiritual power and the natural world * Buffalo were often the main source of food the Plains tribes hunted * Economic Importance of the Buffalo

* Buffalo provided the economic basis for Plains tribes
* Every part of the buffalo was used skin for clothing, bones for arrow tips, tendons for string, and meat for food * Indian Weaknesses
* Plains Indians were extremely proud at their ability to fight and hunt and male members of tribes were essentially a warrior class * Plains tribes proved to the greatest threat to settlers in the west and the only weakness they had (like all Indian tribes) was that they were not willing to unite against white aggression * Like Eastern tribes they refused to band together in a coalition and would even fight each other while fighting white settlers * Some tribes were able to band together such as the Sioux, Arapaho, and Cheyenne, who had created a powerful alliance and ruled the northern Plains * The tribes ultimate weakness was to eastern diseases

* Smallpox and other diseases wiped many western tribes out

Hispanic New Mexico

* For centuries much of the Far West had been apart of the Spanish Empire and later, the Mexican Republic * Land acquired by the United States in the 1840’s had Mexicans living on it who had suddenly become residents in American territory * Spanish communities were spread throughout the Southwest * Arrival of Anglo-American migrants and the expansion of American capitalist changed the small towns * New Mexico had descendants from the original Spanish settlers in the seventeenth century * These descendants lived alongside Pueblo Indians and American traders and then there was a...
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