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The Complications and Treatments of Cancer”

By Khloe Oct 10, 2013 1595 Words
Cancer in History
In ancient Egypt, fossilized bone tumor was among the earliest evidence of cancer found human mummies and ancient manuscripts. Hippocrates, a well known ancient Greek physician, used the word “carcinoma” that described different types of cancers. The bodies of the mummies have shown growth indicated of bone cancer. The oldest information of cancer was found in Egypt back in 1600 B.C.

What is Cancer?
Cancer begins when the cells life cycle is abnormal. Instead of dying, the cancer cell continues to make new cells with the same damage DNA in a part of the body and eventually start to grow out of control forming new, abnormal cells with the same genetic information. The continuous cycle of abnormal cells production will eventually invade into other tissues, a role that normal cells cannot perform. Without the control of cell divisions in a cancerous cell, the cancer cell can occupy the surrounding tissues without treatment at a rapid rate. Other body or organ parts can be affected by the cancer cell by traveling through the circulatory or lymphatic systems. With the quick growth of the cancer cells in the body dividing too rapidly and no longer have the function to kill themselves at the end of the life cycle. There are many different types of cancers depending on where the cell originated, but the starting process is the same. The cell irregular increase growth production and entering other tissues space is what makes a cell a cancer cell. There are approximately about 200 types of different cancer diseases identified. The human body is composed of hundreds of millions of living cells. Normal body cells usually grow, divide, and die in a timely function. A younger person normal body cells would divide faster allowing the individual to grow. Once the individual reach adulthood, most cells will only divide to replace worn out cells, dying cells, or to repair injuries.

There are numerous factors that can cause or affect normal cells to become cancer cells. Some factoring agents are excessive or increase exposure to chemical used (benzene), alcohol consumption, environmental toxins, sunlight, genetic makeup/problems, obesity, radiation, viruses, or multi factorial involvement (age, life style, and day to day environment). Another cancer-causing substance is carcinogens, tobacco products or black char on food (chicken) cooked over in a barbeque pit. An individual that uses tobacco products will have a higher chance of getting lung cancer, but if the person also drinks excessive. They are at higher risks of getting oral or throat cancer. There are many different factorials that come into effect that plays a pre cursor in the development of cancers. Over exposure in sunlight or a tanning bed can cause melanoma (skin cancer). When a person age and becomes older, more cancers become more common due to cell mutation in the genes at a later stage. For example, an individual smokes one pack of cigarettes per day for over 30 years. The person is exposed to nicotine, a chemical that can affect the surrounding tissues of the oral cavity along with the lungs. The individual is at risk for lung and/or oral and throat cancers due to genetic mutations in the DNA over a long period of time. Genetic predisposition is genetic mutations that a person is born receiving the mutated DNA from the parents’ genetic makeup. The person may not show any symptoms of cancer, but they are likely to develop cancer during their lifetime. Lung and breast cancers are common genetic predisposition. Auto immune individuals have a higher rate in getting some type of cancer, especially organ transplant patient, HIV or AIDS, or born with a rare medical disease that affects their immunity. These groups are most likely to acquire cancers caused by viruses, cervical and genital or anal area and liver cancer (Hepatitis A or B). Stomach cancer can be developed by a bacterial infection, Helicobacter pylori, if the infection is not treated quickly. Lymphomas are another cancer that can develop in an auto immune person. Human papilloma virus can be transmitted through sexual contact and can also lead to cervical cancer. Daily consumptions of certain food, too much red and processed meat, are other factors that can lead to cancers. Food additives and pesticides in growing vegetables and fruits are also another leading agent. The surrounding environments on a daily base put everyone at risks, second hand smoking, the sun, natural and man mad radiation, work place hazards and asbestos.

Diagnosis of Cancer by Type per Year
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death. In the United States, men are more prevalent to develop prostate cancer, lung cancer, or colon cancer. Breast cancer, colon cancer, and lung cancer the three most common cancers in women. Significantly, the common trends in both sexes are lung cancer and colon cancer. •Lung Cancer is the most common Cancer in the world, accounting for 1.2 Million new cases annually. •Breast Cancer, 1 Million Cases

Colorectal Cancer, 940,000 Cases
Stomach Cancer, 870,000 Cases
Liver Cancer, 560,000 Cases
Cervical Cancer, 470,000 Cases
Esophageal Cancer, 410,000 Cases
Head and Neck Cancer, 390,000 Cases
Bladder Cancer, 330,000 Cases
Leukemia, 250,000 Cases
The three most deadly cancers that kill the highest numbers of people each year are not the most prevalent types; they are lung cancer responsible for 17.8% of cancer deaths, stomach cancer, responsible for 10.4 percent, and liver cancer which accounts for another 8.8% of cancer deaths per year. Industrial nations with the highest overall cancer rates include the United States, Italy, Australia, Germany, The Netherlands, Canada, and France. Developing countries, who hold the lowest instances of cancer related illness, are Northern Africa and Southern and Eastern Asia.

Cure and Control
Curative treatment exists for about one third of all cancer cases, but particularly breast, cervical and oral cancers, if detected early. Treatment for cancers consists of a series of interventions, including psychosocial support, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, some individuals may choose to participate in clinical trials meant to evaluate new treatments, or try complementary/alternative therapy, that is aimed at curing or controlling the disease in order to prolong the life of the patient considerably (for several years) while improving the patient’s quality of life. Surgery: it is considered “local” treatment. Offer a chance for a cure when cancer is diagnosed in the earlier stages. Several different methods of surgery are available depending on the size of the tumor and where it is located; if a tumor is close to a vital organ, such as the heart, treatments other than surgery may be considered safer regardless of the stage. Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is the use of high energy radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. It is the most commonly used method of cancer treatment. Radiation is given two ways: internal radiation (brachytherapy) and external radiation (systemic). Internal radiation uses radiation that is placed very close to the tumor site. The source is the radiation is placed in a small container, called an implant. If surgery has been done and cancer cells are still present, it is usually placed at the incision site. External radiation is done on an outpatient basis at a hospital. A large machine is used to point radiation at the cancer and possibly surrounding tissues. the most common side effects experienced during radiation therapy are: fatigue, changes of the skin, loss of appetite. Chemotherapy: it is one of the most invasive treatments, work by killing rapidly dividing cells. Unlike surgery and radiation therapy, chemotherapy is a “systemic treatment,” meaning that it works to kill cancer cells anywhere in the body. This can be particularly helpful if cancer cells may have spread beyond the regions treated by surgery and radiation. Some chemotherapy medications are given as an oral pill, but most are given intravenously. The most common side effects are hair loss, digestive tract symptoms such as mouth sores and nausea, and a lowering of your white and red blood cell counts from suppression of your bone marrow may occur.

Latest Research Studies
Research studies of the latest drugs and therapies against many types of cancer are continuously being conducted. This type of research requires human volunteers to test the safety and effectiveness of new therapies. Volunteers must meet the criteria of each study to participate.

There is no country in the world where cancer does not occur. In the United States; cancer is the second leading cause of death, and it is estimated that 559,650 Americans will die from cancer in 2011, more than 1,500 people a day. Cancer accounts for one of every four deaths in the U.S. Early detection can extend life, reduce treatment and improve quality of life for cancer patients. The American Cancer Society estimates that relative survival for breast, tongue, mouth, colon, rectum, cervix, prostate, testis and melanoma cancers would increase drastically if all Americans participated in regular cancer screenings.

Works Cited
Dugdale, David, and David Aieve. "Cancer - PubMed Health." National Center for Biotechnology Information. N.p., 24 Aug. 2010. Web. 21 Mar. 2011. . Ferrara, Miranda Herbert, and Brigham Narins. Human diseases and conditions . 2nd ed. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons/Gale Cengage Learning, 2010. Print. Porter, Robert, Justin Kaplan, and Barbara Homeier. The Merck manual home health handbook . Whitehouse Station, N.J.: Merck, 2009. Print. "The history of cancer." cancer. American Cancer Society, 22 Mar. 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. . "What causes cancer? : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK." CancerHelp UK Homepage : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK. Cancer Research UK, 15 July 2010. Web. 24 Mar. 2011. .

Mager, D. L. "Bacteria and cancer: cause, coincidence or cure? A review." Journal of Translational Medicine 4.(2006): 14-18. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 10 Apr. 2011. Clemmitt, Marcia. "Genes and Health." CQ Researcher 21 Jan. 2011: 49-72. Web. 10 Apr. 2011.

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