Part One: The Encounters
Chapter One: Natives:
Old world explorers encountered in the new world complex and diverse peoples—who, where, etc? Old world explorers encountered Native Americans in North America.
Pre-Columbian America is “fraught with controversy.” What conflicts were they?
Native Americans had conflict with the Europeans over social and environmental problems; this led to violence and war. Also, Europeans and Native Americans were both violent and Europeans enslaved and killed Natives to conquer land and people.
Without making Europeans out to be vile, cruel and violent, we should recognize that they had superior power but they gave new additions to Native Americans.
Europeans brought new weapons and tools that the Natives found helpful and useful. The Europeans also brought horticulture to the land.
Some natives had a culture that demanded less of the environment than that of other natives—such as:
The natives north of central Mexico lived in smaller more dispersed bands that had less of a burden on the nature unlike the Anasazi, Hohokam, and northern Mississippians that all put excessive pressure on their local environments.
What are Taylor’s three ideas which he argues about migration?
The people had to remain on foot to follow the herds of animals,
The period between fifteen thousand and twelve thousand years ago was the ideal time of crossing into North America.
Dental, genetic, and linguistic analysis reveals that most Native Americans descend from ancestors that came here fifteen thousand years ago.
Chapter Two: Colonizers:
Taylor makes a big issue over environmentalism—why?
During that time period the state of the environment affected how you lived in every way. The people depended on the environment greatly to give them daily needs and its effects were high.
What caused the expansion of Europe—and why?
The improvement of ship making techniques and navigational techniques caused