the cell cycle

Topics: Mitosis, Cell cycle, Chromosome Pages: 5 (442 words) Published: April 27, 2014


The Cell Cycle
Brittany Jameson
Vista College

Abstract
The cell cycle is made up of five steps. These steps are interphase, mitosis, cytoplasmic division, cell differentiation, and cell death. During mitosis there is a series of four stages.

The Cell Cycle
To start the cell cycle the cells first go through a step called interphase. During this step the cell grows and synthesizes new molecules and organelles. In the S phase the DNA of the cell is replicated in preparation for cell division. It also goes through the G1 and G2 phases that the cell grows and other structures are duplicated. ("PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline." PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014) Mitosis is the next stage where the carefully orchestrated division of the nucleus of the cell that results in each daughter cell receiving an exact copy of the mothers cells genetic material. Inside of the mitosis stage there is four phases Prophase, Metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. In the Prophase phase each duplicated chromosome is seen as a pair of sister chromatids joined by the duplicated but unseparated centromere. The next phase is Metaphase occurs as spindle fibers attach to centromeres on the chromosomes and they align midway between centrioles. ("Bio 2 Chamberlain Flashcards Bio 2 Study Guide (2013-14 Chamberlain) | StudyBlue." StudyBlue. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014. In the anaphase phase the spindle fibers contract and pull sister chromatids toward centrioles. The last phase is telophase. In this phase the chromosomes have completed their migration, the nuclear envelope reappears, and the chromosomes begin to unwind. ("Mitosis: Prophase." Mitosis: Prophase. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.) During the Cytoplasmic division cytokinesis begins during anaphase of mitosis and continues as a contractile ring punches the two new cells apart. The two daughter cells may have varying amounts of cytoplasm and organelles, but they share identical genetic information within the cell. ("PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline." PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. ) The next step is cell differentiation, during this step the cell develops into two different types of cells with specialized functions. The cell then reflects genetic control of the nucleus as certain genes are turned on while others are turned off. Cell death is the final stage during the cell cycle. Apoptosis is a form of cell death that is a normal part of the development. ("Bio 2 Chamberlain Flashcards Bio 2 Study Guide (2013-14 Chamberlain) | StudyBlue." StudyBlue. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014.)

References
"Bio 2 Chamberlain Flashcards Bio 2 Study Guide (2013-14 Chamberlain) | StudyBlue." StudyBlue. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014.
"Mitosis: Prophase." Mitosis: Prophase. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014. "PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline." PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014


References: "Bio 2 Chamberlain Flashcards Bio 2 Study Guide (2013-14 Chamberlain) | StudyBlue."
StudyBlue. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014.
"Mitosis: Prophase." Mitosis: Prophase. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Apr. 2014.
"PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline." PHED 200 Chapter 03 Outline. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Apr. 2014
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