MGN412 Organisational Behaviour
Student name: Tongtong ZHU
Student No.: n8912386
Word count: 1787 (without reference)
Due time: Thursday, 01/05/2014
From the perspective of research and practice, job satisfaction has received significant attention from the fields of management, social psychology, and practical operations in recent years. Formally defined, job satisfaction is a psychological disposition resulting from one’s tasks as well as attitude to the physical and social conditions of the workplace. Meanwhile, it also indicates the degree to which employees’ expectations are fulfilled (Wood, J. M., 2013, p. 60). Today, as business faces tough economic conditions, employee satisfaction is still crucial to the success and competitiveness of any organization due to the correlation between satisfaction and employee behaviour. A high rate of job satisfaction is directly related to a lower turnover and absenteeism rate. Nonetheless, Rynes, Colbert, and Brown (2002) indicated in a study of HR professionals, the major practitioner knowledge gaps in this area are: the causes of employee attitudes and the results of job satisfaction. Thus, managers should gain a more in-depth understanding of the importance of job satisfaction and take actions to improve job satisfaction levels.
This literature review examines the causes that may influence job satisfaction and the effects related to it with the view to make recommendations on how managers and employees can address factors of job satisfaction for greater productivity outcomes. The first section of this paper will present three factors affecting job satisfaction including dispositional influences, cultural influences, and work situation influences. This will be followed by a focus on the consequences of job satisfaction in three areas, such as job performance, life satisfaction, and withdrawal behaviors.
There are a variety of research studies that indicate that disposition or personality and job satisfaction have a deep relationship. Staw and Ross (as cited in Saari & Judge, 2004) in 1985 demonstrated that the job satisfaction of scores of employees have been stable over time, even when they change jobs or organizations. This viewpoint was supported by a study by Arvey, Bouchard, and Segal where they found that job satisfaction is associated with the genetic components. According to their research finding, approximately 30% of the observed variance in general job satisfaction was due to genetic factors, such as general intelligence, information processing, personality dispositions, psychological interests, and attributes (Arvey, Bouchard, Segal & Abraham, 1989, p. 187). Similarly, Seahore et al. (as cited in Zhu, 2013) assert that individual factors (demographic characteristics; characters) can be antecedents for job satisfaction. Therefore, it seems reasonable that dispositional factors might influence the manner in which employees respond to their work contexts.
It is increasingly accepted that culture or country might have effects on employee attitudes. In particular, with the continued globalization of organization, HR practitioners have to address new challenges about cross-cultural organizational and human resources issues (Saari, L. M., & Judge, T. A., 2004, p. 397). The most useful framework to understand differences in job attitudes is cultural dimensions of Hofstede in cross-cultural work contexts. According to Hofstede (Najera, 2008) the way people in different counties perceive and interpret their world varies along four dimensions: Small vs. Large Power Distance, Individualism vs. Collectivism, Masculinity vs. Femininity, and Uncertainty Avoidance. In addition, Jackoson (2002) argued that Hosfstede’s four dimensions also help people recognize the importance of culture which in turn influences how employees are viewed and valued across countries/cultures.
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