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The Catcher in the Rye

By Maiya54 Jan 11, 2013 9055 Words
The Catcher in the Rye

Maggie Michaels, Benson High School
Keith Higbee, Wilson High School
Amy Botula, Wilson High School
Tammy Lite-O’Neill, Wilson High School

2007
DRAFT
PPS Funding
Table of Contents

Introduction1

Calendar3

Criteria and Standards Table4

Parent Opt-Out Letter 5

Journals6

Pre-Reading: Teens Reflecting on the Teen Experience9
Teens Overhead10

Setting the Stage: Viewing “Dead Poet’s Society”11
Anthropological Wheel, Student Handout12
Post-Viewing Discussion Questions, Student Handout13

Imaginative Writing: Four Days in Holden’s Shoes14
Four Days of Freedom Journal, Student Handout15

Observation Notebook16
Observation Notebook, Student Handout Cover17
Observation Notebook, Point of View Chart18
Possible Template to Support Narrative Notes, Student Handout19

Chapter 5: The Sibling Connection20
Chapter 5/The Sibling Connection, Transparency21

The Line Up22
The Line Up, Student Handout23

Craft Lesson: Point of View Simulation24

Rewriting the Truth25
Rewriting the Truth, Student Handout26

Observation Notebook, Variation of Point of View27

Dear Abby: An Advice Letter for Holden28
Advice for Holden, Student Handout29

Craft Lesson: It’s Time to Rant30

Craft Lesson: Tone Analysis31
Craft Lesson: Title It! Creating Effective Titles32
Title It! Transparency33
Title Me, Baby! Student Handout34

Tone in a Tune: Holden’s Theme Song35
Tone in a Tune: Holden’s Theme Song Student Handout36

Analyzing Art: Approaching Tone Visually38

Craft Lesson: You Be the ___________ or You Be the Shrink39
You Be the ______________ Student Handout41
You Be the Shrink-CITR Final Rubric46

Revision Support 47

Editing Support48
Introduction

Upon learning that The Catcher in the Rye had been selected as a Core Book for the Ninth Grade, all members of our group struggled to suppress the questions: What? How? Freshmen? Thus, we chose to come together and find the answers by developing the curriculum necessary to support this potentially daunting task.

To be clear, all of us believe in rigor and in assisting our students to tap unknown strengths, but we also recognize the impact that Holden Caulfield has on students who are his same age.

For freshmen, new to the experience of high school and only just entering adolescent arrogance, the subtleties of Holden’s struggle may be lost. To make Holden more accessible, we have chosen to begin this unit by focusing on the collective teen experience—weighing and discussing societal and parental expectations, peer pressure, limitations, and privileges. With this base, we then move on to introducing the idea of point-of-view. Students will transition from personally analyzing Holden’s choices in the early chapters of the novel to critiquing his behavior in the mindset of a specific role—parent, doctor, teacher, or peer. By assuming this role and reading with a purpose, students gain experience with analyzing text and more subtly, critiquing tone. To ensure comfort and familiarity first, we wait until the middle of the unit to actually use the term “tone.” This way, students will have already had multiple opportunities to discuss, write, and even, act “tone” and will, hopefully, find it to be a less elusive concept. The unit concludes with two culminating activities: 1) a performance-based task that furthers students’ assigned roles and leads to an expository essay and 2) a common grade-level writing assignment—which, for ninth grade, is a literary analysis on tone.

As this is a unit for freshmen on The Catcher in the Rye, there are a number of caveats: 1) Please, please do not begin the year with this novel. No matter how capable your students are, all freshmen need to get acquainted with the hypocrisy of high school’s cliques and culture before they can truly be open to Holden’s voice. 2) As one of the culminating activities is a common grade-level writing assignment tied to the ninth grade prompt for 2007-2008, it is tempting to choose this unit as your means to an end and meet the anticipated December 14 due date. Please, please use your professional discretion. As we all know, literary analysis itself is a challenge for freshmen; critiquing tone raises the bar even higher. True, a wealth of support exists in the pages that follow, but it may not be enough during first semester. Preview this unit first and then make the decision that is best for your students and for you. 3) As The Catcher in the Rye is frequently banned, we have included an Opt-Out letter and feel compelled to remind you of the novel’s potentially offensive language and adult situations. Considering our freshmen audience, we have chosen to introduce Holden’s status as patient in a sanatorium from the start of the unit and to focus on Holden’s mindset and the impact of his choices. It is our hope that, by portraying Holden as a person in need, we have downplayed the potential for students to glorify his more rebellious and illegal behavior.

Our emphasis on Holden Caulfield as a representative of the adolescent experience leads to the following Desired Results: -Students will understand that novelists often provide insights about human experience and inner life through fictional means.

-Students will understand that writers use a variety of stylistic techniques to engage and persuade their readers.
-Students will understand that Holden Caulfield reflects common adolescent experiences but masks deep-seated personal problems about growing up and relating to others.

These examples of Enduring Understanding will be framed and guided by the following Essential Questions:
-Does Holden represent adolescence? Is he abnormal, or are all adolescents “abnormal”? Who is genuine and who is “phony”? Why do people act phony?

-How do authors hook and hold readers? How does J.D. Salinger engage you?

Finally, as teachers who have watched many sixteen-year-olds awaken to the wonder that literacy can offer as a result of reading Catcher, designing this unit was a curious labor of love. We continually wrestled with feeling protective of Holden, protective of the freshmen, and protective of J.D. Salinger. We hope that this result, full of opportunities to write from a variety of viewpoints, role-play, read critically, act, and draw will not only lead to the enhanced ability to analyze text and craft a coherent essay but also the maturity needed to reflect on the universality of the teen experience.

Essential Questions and Enduring Understanding from
Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook
2004
Calendar for The Catcher in the Rye

|Day 1: Freewrite: Teens |Day 2: Dead Poets Society: |Day 3 |Day 4 |Day 5 | |-Begin Dead Poets Society |Note-taking, note-making and|Imaginative writing: Being in|-Introduce Observation |-Read out loud chaps. 1 & | | |discussion |Holden’s shoes. |Notebook: Intro and practice|2. | | | | |using Attitude Chart with |-POV Chart 1 | | | | |imaginative piece from day 3| | |Day 6 |Day 7 |Day 8 |Day 9 |Day 10 | |-Chapters 3 &4 and |-Chapter 5 “The Sibling |-The Line Up (character |-Share illustrations |-Chapter 8 | |-POV Chart 2 |Connection” |illustration) |-Craft Lesson: Point of View|-Rewriting the truth | | | | |HMWK: Chap. 6& 7 | | |Day11 |Day 12 |Day 13 |Day 14---------------& |Day 15---------------- | |-Share-out Rewrites |-Role groups complete master|-Students assigned |-In clinical groups: Read |-Discussion of reading POV | |-Assign clinical roles |POV Chart 3 and present to |heterogeneous clinical |Chap’s 12 -14 |Chart 4 | |-Read Chap. 9 in like |class |groups. | | | |clinical groups | |-Chap. 11 | | | |Day 16 |Day 17-----------------& |Day 18------------------- |Day 19 |Day 20----------------& | |-Dear Abby: An advice |-In clinical groups 15-16 |-Discussion of reading, POV |-Read aloud Chap 17 |-Chaps 18-20 | |letter for Holden. | |Chart 5 |Tone: It’s Time to Rant! | | |Day 21------------------ |Day 22-----------------& |Day 23------------------ |Day 24------------------& |Day 25------------------- | |-Discussion of reading, POV|New Yorker “Slight Rebellion|Continued from Day 22 |Chaps 21-23 |-Discussion of reading, POV| |Chart 6 |on Madison” | | |Chart 6 | |Day 26 |Day 27-------------------& |Day 28-------------------- |Day 29 |Day 30 | |-Title Me Baby! |-Read 24 & 25 |-Chap. 26 aloud |-Creative Tone Project: |-Project continued | | | |-Discussion of reading, POV |Theme song or Art Analysis | | | | |Chart 7 | | | |Day 31 |Day 32 |Day 33 |Day 34 |Day 35 | |-Craft Lesson “You be |-Final reflection on tone |-Drafting essay |-Continued drafting & |-Peer editing | |the_____” |-Craft Lesson: Thesis |Write Source pp. 268-284 |Revision |-Typing and Revising | | |(Holden’s essay page 11, | |Write Source p.595-597 |-Final Draft due Day | | |Write Source) | | | |

Criteria and Standards for
Catcher in the Rye 

|Criteria |Teaching Outline/ |Writing Craft Lessons |Literacy Standards | | |Strategies | | | |Reading Analysis |Journal Prompts |Point of View |9.7.4 Writing strategies & elements of author’s craft | | |Character Illustration | |9.8.1 ID sequence of events, main ideas, details | | |Note taking | |9.9.2 Make assertions with evidence | | |Analysis Journal | |9.9.3 Draw inferences & generalizations, supporting with textual| | |Class/Group Discussion | |evidence | | |Creative Analysis | |9.9.5 Qualities of characters | | |Simulation | |9.9.6 Characterization | | |Quotation Analysis | |9.9.9 Characters actions & motives, plot and theme | | |Role Playing | |9.10.5 Voice & narrators affect on characters, tone, plot | | | | |9.10.8 Literary elements: mood, place, time period, cultures | | | | |9.10.9 Author’s attitude: tone | | | | |9.12.4 Word Choice | | | | |   | |Imaginative Writing |Journaling | |9.13.6 Narrative Writing | |Literary Analysis |Note taking |Titles |9.10.5 Voice & narrators affect on characters, tone, plot | | |Discussion |Essay Organization |9.9.2 Make assertions with evidence | | |Pre-writing |Thesis Statmnt |9.9.3 Draw inferences & generalizations, supporting with textual| | |Reading Synthesis |Tone |evidence | | |Drafting |  |9.10.9 Author’s attitude: tone | | |Text Analysis |  |9.13.5 Exp writing: response to literature | | |Art Analysis | | 9.12.1 Ideas & Content | | |Revising | | 9.12.2 Organization | | |Peer Editing | | 9.12.3 Voice | | | | | 9.12.4 Word Choice | | | | | 9.12.5 Sentence Fluency | | | | | 9.12.6 Conventions |

Dear Parent/Guardian,

Over the next several weeks, our Language Arts class will read and explore themes within The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. The Catcher in the Rye is a hallmark of contemporary American literature that gives a timeless voice to the often turbulent adolescent experience. The novel’s main character, Holden Caulfield, provides readers with an exemplar opportunity to study characterization, and analyze the power of tone in a novel.

Through the character of Holden, Saligner poignantly captures the roller coaster that accompanies self-discovery. As a result, the work’s language and content is, at times, brash: including the use of profanity, allusions to sex, and the occurrence of suicide. Objectionable as these elements are, they are skillfully utilized by Salinger to develop Holden’s character and ultimately, provide the reader a literary experience that is dually humorous and thought provoking. Moreover, the novel allows multiple teaching opportunities and class discussions on topics such as the power and symbolism of language, the struggle for self-definition, and the impact of social pressure on the individual.

I invite you to read The Catcher in the Rye for yourself, to ask your student about the material presented in class, and to engage in your student’s critical thinking about the themes and subjects within the novel. I would be happy to discuss this novel and my lesson plans with you in greater detail if you desire. Feedback is always welcome; simply use the contact information below.

If you prefer that your student receive an alternate assignment, please indicate so at the bottom portion of this form. Thank you for your time and response.

Best Regards,

____Please call me to further discuss this novel and/or an alternate novel

____At this time, I request my student ____________________, be provided with an alternative novel.

___________________________________________________
Signature of Parent/GuardianPhone contact

Journals

Standard: 9.8.1 ID sequence of events, main ideas, details
9.9.5 Qualities of characters
9.9.9 Characters actions and motifs: Plot and theme 9.13.5 Expository Writing: Response to literature

Objective: Students will demonstrate a general understanding of the text Students will interpret characters’ qualities by reading inferentially Students will critique characters’ motives and actions

Materials: Observation Notebooks
Journal Writing Prompts

Time: Throughout unit as teacher chooses

Activity: The provided journal topics are intended for use at the teacher’s discretion throughout the unit. Some journals fit perfectly as class openers, while others work more specifically with the text. Peruse and use as necessitated by the needs of your students.

|Chapter |Journal Prompt | |Close of 1 & 2 |First Impressions: | | | | | |1. Describe Holden’s personality to someone who knows nothing | | |about the novel. Use a simile as part of your description | | | | | |2. Do you like Holden? Why? Why not? | |3/4 |Without giving their name, describe some qualities of one of your| | |good friends. Include some of their most memorable physical and | | |personality-based traits. | | | | | |Now provide the same description for someone you don’t get along | | |with so well. | | | | | |Which was easier to write and why? | |6 &7 |1. Holden says he is a “pacifist.” What does that mean, and do | | |you agree that he is/is not? Are you a pacifist? | | | | | |2. What is Holden’s final goodbye to Pency Prep? | | | | | |3. Why do you think Holden was crying when he left? | |8 |Lying: Is it ever okay to lie? Why/why not? If so, give an | | |example. | |After 11 |Why do you think Holden liked Jane? What qualities do you look | | |for in someone you would like to date? | |12 & 13 |(Before reading) 1. Define hypocritical | | | | | |(Before reading) 2. Give an example from your life when you have | | |done or said something hypocritical. (No judgment, we’re all | | |guilty!) | | | | | |(After reading) Provide two examples from Chapters 12 & 13 when | | |Holden does or says something hypocritical. Explain exactly how | | |Holden is contradicting himself. | | | | |16-17 |1. Why do you think Holden is confessing all of this to Sally? | | |(Pg. 130) | | | | | |2. Is your idea of the perfect future and/or “the one” closer to | | |Holden’s or Sally’s? Explain what you want. | | | | |After 16 |Changes: On page 121, Holden talks about how he went back to the| | |Museum of Natural History, and he was the only thing different. | | |Write abut a place that hasn’t changed, but seems different | | |because you have changed. | |18 & 19 |1. Why does Holden call Carl Luce? | | |2. Carl pretends to very mature. In your opinion, is he? Do you | | |think Holden is mature or immature? | |20 |1. After reading the chapter’s first line, pause and have | | |students make predictions for what will happen in the remainder | | |of the chapter. | | | | | |2. What information does Holden finally tell us about Allie’s | | |funeral? | | | | | |3. After he leaves the park, where does Holden go? | | |1. On page 150, Holden says he is, “concealing that I was a | | |wounded sonuvabitch.” What wounds does he have? How is he | | |trying to cover his wounds? | | | | | |2. Why is alcohol a false escape for Holden, and others? | |22-23 |Prompt: Would you rather die for a cause and be remembered | | |forever? Or live your life for a cause in obscurity? |

Pre-Reading: Teens Reflecting on the Teen Experience

Standard: 9.13.5 Expository Writing: Response to Literature

Objectives: Students will reflect on their own experience
Students will consider the effects of societal norms

Materials: “Teens” transparency

Time: 10-20 minutes

Activity:

1. Students respond to overhead on notebook paper/journal 2. Put transparency on overhead
3. Students respond to questions. Discussing each question as teacher selects.

Transparency

Teens

1. How do you think society perceives teenagers today?

2. What is the stereotype for a teen? Consider specifics for males and females.

3. What is difficult about being a teen?

4. What are the advantages of being a teen?
Setting the Stage for The Catcher in the Rye: Viewing “Dead Poet’s Society”

Standard: 9.7.4 Writing strategies & elements of author’s craft
9.8.1 Identify sequence of events, main ideas, details

Objective: Students will create contexts for CITR’s setting—specifically the cultural values and societal expectations of the upper middle class in the 1950s. Students will strengthen understanding of rebellion and conformity within the novel’s time period.

Materials: Copy of Dead Poets Society VHS/DVD
Student set of note-taking handouts that follow (Anthropological Wheel, Post-Viewing Discussion Questions)

Time: 1-2 class periods (You will not need to watch the entire movie).

Activity:

1. Hand out copies of note-taking sheets.
2. Students should fill in the Anthropological Wheel while watching the film, seeking multiple examples of each trait. Clarify any unfamiliar terms and give contemporary examples. 3. Offer an overview of the film’s plot.

4. View film through scene where John Keating (Robin Williams’ character) tears the Introduction from the poetry anthology. If you have time, you may want to continue through the scene when Keating has the students stand on the desk and he forces Todd (Ethan Hawke) to speak. 5. Stop film. Allow time to add final thoughts to the Wheel. Then, divide class into groups of three to four to share responses and complete Discussion Questions sheet together. 6. Approximately 20 minutes later (depending on need and investment), bring the class together to debrief groups’ responses and general observations. 7. Close by posing this question: Based on what you have seen, what conclusions can we make about upper middle class society in the 1950s?

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Student Handout

Name:
Date:
Period:

Dead Poet’s Society Post-Viewing Discussion Questions

1. What are the four principles of Welton Academy?

2. How are these principles reflected in the school setting? Consider location, surroundings, items in background, and behavior and dress of students.

3. Describe Neil. What are three words that best fit his personality?

4. How does Neil’s father treat him?

5. How are Neil’s expectations of himself and his father’s expectations different?

6. Describe Todd. Why is he so shy?

7. What examples of peer pressure do you see?

8. What are the school’s expectations of its teachers?

9. What kind of teacher is John Keating?

10. How does John Keating demonstrate the school’s four principles?

Imaginative Writing: Four Days in Holden’s Shoes

Standard: 9.9.9 Character’s actions and motives – plot and theme 9.10.5 Voice and narrator’s affect on character, tone and plot 9.10.9 Author’s attitude – tone

9.13.6 Narrative Writing (includes imaginary) 9.12.3 Voice

Objective: Students will consider how they might react if placed in a similar situation as Holden.
Students will explore first-person narrative voice.
Students will generate a piece of writing with which they can explore tone.

Materials: Copies of “Four Days of Freedom Journal” handout

Time: 1 class period

Activity:

1. Hand out copies of the “Four Days of Freedom Journal” assignment to the class. 2. Read over the assignment with the class, clearing up any areas of confusion and establishing your criteria for a well-developed journal entry. 3. Give students the rest of the period to write, circulating about the room offering assistance where needed. Emphasize that these entries need to be completed as homework if necessary, since they will be used in the next day’s assignment.

Student Handout

Four Days of Freedom Journal

Christmas vacation is a few days away.  Instead of leaving your private boarding school for the standard two-week vacation, you will be leaving for good because you are failing every subject except English, and have been kicked out.  It’s Saturday, and you have four days before you are expected home, at which time your parents will have received the news about your permanent expulsion.

Your assignment: Write a journal entry for each of the four days (Saturday, Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday) that you’ll be on your own. These entries should be well-developed and include your thoughts about your current predicament, fears of what awaits you at home (especially as you get closer to Wednesday), and descriptions of how you are spending your four days. Consider where you’ll be spending your days and nights (your friends will be in school and your friends’ parents probably know your parents), and what you’ll do with the thousand dollars that you have to blow. Freedom as you know it will probably be lost as soon as you arrive home, so what will you do to make the most of these last four days? Observation Notebook

Standard: 9.10.5 Voice & narrators affect on characters, tone, plot
9.10.8 Literary elements: mood, place, time period, cultures
9.10.9 Author’s attitude: tone

Objectives: Students will analyze the tone of the text by examining setting and characterization.
Students will examine the author’s purpose as illustrated by the setting, characterization, and tone of the text.

Materials: Student Notebook packet including 8 POV charts or an overhead of POV chart template.

Time: Throughout the unit.

Activity: The Observation Notebook, which includes the POV charts, will be completed using various perspectives throughout the unit. The POV chart has been created to guide students to an indirect analysis of the tone of Catcher. Teachers should view the chart as a starting place and a support for students as they begin the novel. Once their roles have been assigned, teachers should encourage students to move from the chart and onto composing a more narrative response that still addresses tone, purpose, setting, and character (see lesson plan). The textbook definition of tone is the author’s attitude towards a subject. Because teenagers tend to be well-versed in describing “attitudes”, we chose this specific terminology. Through his descriptions of setting and characters, Salinger conveys the tone of the novel using Holden’s voice as the vehicle.

Introducing the Notebook, Day 4 & 5:

Day 4
1. Handout and discuss the requirements of the Student Notebook. 2. Ask students to trade their Day 3 imaginative papers with a partner. Substituting “Holden” for the writer of the paper, students fill out a POV chart. 3. Students share the completed chart with their partner and then as a class.

Day 5
1. As a class, read Chapters 1 and 2 out loud.
2. Each student should complete a POV chart for the chapters. 3. Students share their entries in pairs or as a class. Teachers should check for understanding. 4. Students will read Chapters 3 & 4 and complete the POV chart individually on Day 6.

Student Handout

Observation Notebook

Holden’s Attitude

Supporting the Observation
(Text)

Author’s Importance ofMotivation Consequence
Purpose Setting of Actions

Student Handout

Date:
Chapters:
Point of View:

Summarize: Describe Holden’s Attitude.

Quotations Supporting This Observation (include page numbers):

Analysis of Author’s Purpose: What do you think Salinger is telling the reader through these passages?

Analysis of Importance of Place: How does where the action take place affect Holden’s behavior and judgments?

Analysis of Motivation: Why does Holden have this attitude? What is his problem? What is his goal?

Consequence of this Attitude: How does this attitude impact what happens to Holden, including the response of others to his actions?

Possible Student Handout

Possible Template to Support Narrative Notes

(Once Clinical Roles Have Been Assigned)

Date:
Chapters:
Role:

Quotation(s): [Include page number]

Response:
(Remember to address Author’s Purpose, Importance of Place, Holden’s Motivation, and the Consequence of Holden’s Attitude)

Chapter 5: The Sibling Connection

Standards: 9.9.2 Make assertions with evidence
9.9.3 Draw inference and generalizations supporting with textual evidence
9.10.5 Voice and narrators affect on characters, tone, and plot

Objectives: Students will utilize information from a clinical perspective to better understand the effects (both long and short term) of Allie’s death on Holden.

Students will use their increased understanding of the aforementioned effects to aide in their developing analysis of point of view and tone. Students will be exposed to the genre of medical/clinical writing.

Materials: Overhead of Chapter 5/ Sibling Connection (following page) One copy of “The Sibling Connection: Experiencing the Death of a Sibling as an Adolescent” (www.counselingstloius.net) for each student. Note: Teacher may consider annotating article based upon student literacy level.

Time: 1 class period

Activity:

1. Read Chapter 5 aloud in class.
2. Students respond to first three questions in their observation notebook (or notebook paper as per teacher’s organization.) 3. Pass out “The Sibling Connection.”
4. Students move into groups of 3-4
5. Teacher begins reading article aloud.
6. Have groups finish reading article in groups.
7. As students are completing article, expose question three on the overhead. 8. Explain: Draw t-chart on page, complete t-chart using a synthesis of information from the novel and “The Sibling Connection” article. Chapter 5 / The Sibling Connection Transparency

1. What are the facts Holden tells us surrounding Allie’s death? Referring back to the text, list what you know.

2. What do we know about Allie? How is he similar/different to Holden? Why did Holden love him so much?

3. How is Allie’s death influencing Holden’s behaviors and feelings?

|Immediate Impact of Allie’s Death on Holden |Long-term impact of Allie’s death on Holden (Imagine Holden in | | |the future…) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

The Line Up

Standards: 9.8.1 ID sequence of events, main ideas, details 9.9.5 Qualities of characters
9.9.6 Characterization

Objectives: Students will create visual representations of characters from the novel.
Students will strengthen their literal and inferential understanding of the novel.

Time: 1-2 class periods

Materials: “The Line Up” ½ sheet handout (follows)
Teacher’s choice of paper

Activity:

1. Distribute and read through “The Line Up” handout with class 2. Students divide into pairs, delegating responsibilities between themselves. 3. Offer “line up” background paper if teacher has opted to make it. (See below example, 8 x 14 works best.) 4. Give students art materials and time.

5. Students share drawings and descriptions at the next class meeting

Sample Line Up Page
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Student Handout
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Catcher in the Rye - The Line Up

Holden Caulfield, Robert Ackley, Ward Stradlater, Mr. Spencer

Chose two characters from the above list. Based primarily on information from the book (you’ll use your smatterings of your imagination for the details) complete a “line-up” portrait and profile for each character.

Portrait (2)
-Headshot or full body
-Colored
-A visual example of what is described in the text

Profile (2)
-One paragraph for each character. (5-7 sentences)
-Describes the character’s personality, traits, background, feelings, ideas, likes/dislikes, connections to other characters.

[pic]
Catcher in the Rye- The Line Up

Holden Caulfield, Robert Ackley, Ward Stradlater, Mr. Spencer

Chose two characters from the above list. Based primarily on information from the book (you’ll use your smatterings of your imagination for the details) complete a “line-up” portrait and profile for each character.

Portrait (2)
-Headshot or full body
-Colored
-A visual example of what is described in the text

Profile (2)
-One paragraph for each character. (5-7 sentences)
-Describes the character’s personality, traits, background, feelings, ideas, likes/dislikes, connections to other characters.
Craft Lesson: Point of View Simulation
--Adapted from Bill Bigelow’s Rethinking Columbus Unit

Standards: 9.7.4 Writing strategies & elements of author’s craft
9.10.8 Literary elements: mood, place, time period, cultures

Objective: Students will understand point of view experientially. Students will practice representing an incident from various points of view.
Students will evaluate benefits and detractors of various points of view.

Advance Preparation: As you will be taking a student’s backpack or purse and going through it, you will need to make arrangements ahead of time. For the simulation to be successful, the student must act as if they were not expecting it.

Materials:Liner paper/notebook for Free-writes

Time: 1 class period

Activity:

1. Either open class with an arbitrary activity and then grab the student’s bag or take it at the immediate beginning of class. 2. Once you have the bag, amidst the anticipated outcries, start going through it. Exaggerate your actions. If challenged, you could remind your students of teachers’ in loco parentis rights. Be careful to avoid any items that would be incriminating or embarrassing for the student. 3. Once you feel impact has been made, you will lead your students through a series of three quick free-writes. First, ask the students to write a description of what has just happened. Emphasize that their retelling should resemble that of a newspaper article or news story. 4. After a suitable length of time, ask students to now write a description of what happened from the student’s point of view. In other words, they should retell the incident as if they were the student whose bag was taken. 5. Again, after another suitable length of time, students should write their final free-write from the teacher’s point of view. 6. Once the final piece is done, students should pair up and share all of their pieces, listening for differences and similarities. 7. Close by bringing class back together and soliciting volunteers to share. You will need all perspectives represented. Again, listen for and comment on similarities and differences. Challenge the students to consider which point of view was the most accurate and the most effective and then connect to the impact of Salinger’s decision to use first person point of view with Holden as the narrator.

Rewriting the Truth

Standards: 9.7.4 Writing strategies and elements of author’s craft 9.10.1 Literary devices’ functions

Objectives: Students will retell a story, and thereby consider the effects of telling the truth/lying as applicable to both the novel and their own lives Students will examine and model author’s style Students will practice speaking in front of the class

Time: 1 class period + homework

Activity:

1. Read Chapter 8 aloud with class
2. Distribute ½ sheet “Rewriting the Truth”
3. Read through task with students.
4. Using “the train scene” with Mrs. Morrow as their reference, students complete task. 5. If opting to have students rewrite the scene in script form, you may want to provide a model, e.g.

Holden: I can’t begin to put into words what a bastard I think your son Ernest is.

Mrs. Morrow: Why you little so-and-so! What in heavens did my little Ernie ever do to you to make you speak so harshly of him?

6. Students may complete their work in either their observation notebook or paper for more ready collection. 7. When the assignment is due, have students select partners and then swap rewrites. Between the two, they select one section of one rewrite to be shared with the class. Pairs decide who will read which role. Allow students some minutes to practice their selections before they “perform” for the class. Have their readings begin with pairs clarifying who will be reading Holden/Rudolf, and who will be Mrs. Morrow. 8. After presentations, discuss responses to “Part I” questions as class.

*As a compendium to the assignment, students may complete the freewrite, “Lying” (please see Journals page) before or after this assignment.

Student Handout

Rewriting the TruthName_______________

The Catcher in the Rye Chapter 8

Refer back to Chapter 8 to respond to the questions, and complete the activity below

Part I
1. How could the conversation between “Rudolf” and Mrs. Morrow really be about Holden? 2. In your opinion, is Mrs. Morrow’s concern for her own son and “Rudolf” genuine or “phony”? 3. What do you think about Holden’s actions and behaviors? Is he a “phony”? Why or why not?

Part II
Rewrite a portion of the conversation (about one page) between Holden/Rudolf and Mrs. Morrow. This time though, have Holden tell her the truth about himself, Pency Prep, and her son, Ernest.

Rewriting the TruthName_______________

The Catcher in the Rye Chapter 8

Refer back to Chapter 8 to respond to the questions, and complete the activity below

Part I
1. How could the conversation between “Rudolf” and Mrs. Morrow really be about Holden? 2. In your opinion, is Mrs. Morrow’s concern for her own son and “Rudolf” genuine or “phony”? 3. What do you think about Holden’s actions and behaviors? Is he a “phony”? Why or why not?

Part II
Rewrite a portion of the conversation (about one page) between Holden/Rudolf and Mrs. Morrow. This time though, have Holden tell her the truth about himself, Pency Prep, and her son, Ernest.

Observation Notebook, Variation of Point of View

Standard: 9.9.3 Draw inferences & generalizations, supporting with textual
evidence
9.9.9 Character’s actions & motives, plot and theme

Objective: Students will examine the impact of a person’s frame of reference in analyzing plot.
Students will reflect upon the text using another perspective. Students will draw conclusions regarding character motives.

Materials: Observation Notebook
Butcher paper or blank overheads.

Time: 5 class periods

Activity: Students will now be reading the novel using an assigned point of view. First, students will practice using their new voice to interpret Holden’s actions in homogeneous groups. After master POV charts are presented to the class, an initial conversation distinguishing how and why each person’s observations vary should take place. Finally, students will form heterogeneous groups, composed of one of four roles, in which they will discuss assigned chapters USING their particular voice. Holden’s actions will, therefore, be judged not only using their own frame of reference but also that of a person Holden may have encountered in his life.

1. Divide students into four “clinical” roles: Doctor, Parent, Peer, and Teacher. 2. Revisit Day 9 discussion of point of view and how the four roles would differ in their observations of Holden’s actions. 3. In homogeneous clinical role groups, students read Chapter 9. 4. In groups, students complete a presentation POV chart (on either an overhead or butcher paper) using the perspective of their assigned role. 5. Students present their POV chart to the class.

6. Discuss how the point of view affects the observations. 7. Divide students into heterogeneous groups and read Chapters 11-14. 8. Ask each student to complete a POV chart from the perspective of their assigned role. 9. As a group and in character, students discuss their POV chart entries. 10. As a class, share discussion details, including variations regarding their role’s judgments of Holden’s behavior. Dear Abby: An Advice Letter for Holden

Standard: 9.9.2 Make assertions with evidence
9.9.9 Characters actions and motives/plot and theme

Objectives: Students will compose a letter from the point of view of an advice-giver Students will exemplify literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension of the novel thus far.

Students will demonstrate their understanding of the character’s motivations and concerns.

Materials: “Advice for Holden” handout

Time: 1 class period

Activity: If students are unaware of the “Dear Abby” column, teacher may want to pull an example from the newspaper, copy onto an overhead, and share with class as a start to this activity.

1. Distribute “Advice for Holden” handout
2. Read through directions with students. Have student volunteers read letter aloud. 3. Students compose letter in Observation Journal or liner paper as per teacher’s intentions.

Student Handout

Advice for Holden

Directions: Read the “Dear Abby” letter Holden has written. As Abby, pen a response to Holden. You want to be specific, realistic (consider 1950’s time period,) and no-nonsense. Your reply letter should include:

-An addressee (Dear….)
-The date
-A closing and signature
-Approximately 3-4 paragraphs

Dear Abby,

I can’t seem to do anything right these days. I just got expelled from school--and this has been the 3rd school I’ve been in during my years in high school. I decided to just leave school right away instead of waiting for winter vacation to officially start, and I’m currently hiding out for a few days in New York.

While my school problems are certainly bothering me a lot, I also seem to be very confused where girls are concerned. A girl I had a crush on for years just went out with my roommate who is a very sexy bastard, and I felt that something may have happened between them. I just can’t seem to get it together with her.

Then I was in this club with these three girls, and they treated me awful-they were ignoring everything I said and then let me pick up the check for all three of them! Girls really drive me crazy. Abby, what can I do to start solving some of my problems with girls and school?

Signed,

ALL REVVED UP WITH NO PLACE TO GO

Craft Lesson: It’s Time to Rant!

Standard: 9.10.5 Voice and narrator’s affect on characters, tone and plot.

Objective: Students will examine how language and structure are used to convey tone.
Student will demonstrate their understanding by composing their own tone-rich text.

Materials: Examples of rants
Highlighters.

Time: 1 class period

Activity:

1. Brainstorm the definition and characteristics of tone. 2. Discuss the characteristics of rants and how word choice, details, sentence and paragraph structure are used to convey the author’s (usually negative) tone. 3. Read selected examples of rants available on the Internet. Rants from Dennis Miller, for example, are available for the more advanced classes (although some editing for language is usually needed). Direct students to highlight words and phrases illustrating the tone of the piece and then share these as a class. 4. Reread Holden’s rant from Chapter 17 in which he argues that going away after college would be “different”—requiring adherence to adult responsibilities. Again analyze how the author’s word choice, details, and sentence structure exhibit tone. 5. As a class, brainstorm possible subjects of rants, focusing on complaints worthy enough to write about. 6. Direct students to select a topic and write a short (500 word) rant. 7. Ask for volunteers to share finished work. Discuss the specific language the author used to convey tone. Craft Lesson: The Catcher in the Rye Tone Analysis

Standard: 9.13.5 Expository Writing: Response to Literature 9.12.1 Ideas and Content
9.12.2 Organization
9.10.9 Author’s attitude – tone
9.9.2 Make assertions w/ evidence
9.10.5 Voice and narrator’s affect on character, tone and plot

Objective: Students will compare first and third person narrative voices
Students will consider how the author’s use of tone affects the story
Students will craft a well structured paragraph on how Holden’s narrative voice affects the tone of the story.

Materials: Copies of Catcher in the Rye
Copies of “Slight Rebellion Off Madison” available at http://www.freeweb.hu/tchl/salinger/madison.html Highlighters
Butcher paper / Markers
Write Source (classroom set or copies)

Time: 2 class periods

Activity: While there are a variety of definitions for tone out there, the one that works best for this activity is the following: The apparent emotional state, or “attitude,” of the speaker/narrator/narrative voice, as conveyed through the language of the piece. Tone refers only to the narrative voice; not to the author or characters.

1. Explain to class that in 1945, Salinger had a short story published in The New Yorker involving Holden Caulfield. This story, titled “Slight Rebellion Off Madison,” would eventually be developed into The Catcher in the Rye published in 1951. 2. As a class, read the short story, paying particular attention to the mood of the piece. 3. Highlight aspects of the story that stand out as being notably different from The Catcher in the Rye. 4. Once finished, read pages 150 (beginning with “But when I got inside this phone booth”) through 153 (ending with “But I didn’t feel like getting on a damn bus”). 5. Break students up into groups of 3’s or 4’s and give them a piece of butcher paper and markers. Inform students that they will be creating a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the two stories. Students should focus on similarities in plot, character and setting, and differences in mood or tone. 6. Once finished, create a Venn diagram on the board and fill it out according to students’ group observations. As you are doing this, focus on how there is a distinct shift in the story’s tone with Holden as narrator. 7. Using the information gained, students will now write a well-crafted (8-10 sentence minimum) paragraph on how Salinger’s decision to use Holden as a narrator changes the tone of this portion of the story. Before doing so, quickly review the parts of a paragraph on pages 562-563 of Write Source. 8. Give students the remainder of the period to complete this assignment.

Title It!: Creating Effective Titles

Standards: 9.12.2 Organization

9.9.2 Make assertions with evidence

Objective: Students will understand the purpose and power of a title

Students will craft titles that work to lure a reader’s attention Students will demonstrate comprehension of assigned reading

Rationale: This lesson aims to move students beyond giving superficial, lackluster titles to their writing. Accordingly, this lesson can be modified to work with prose or poetry. A portion of this lesson (steps three and on,) can be used as a comprehension “test,” and the teacher can opt to have students work silently on an individual level. Conversely, the same assignment could be done in small groups.

Materials: Copy of title minilesson

Copy of “Title me, baby!” handout for each students Copy of the novel

Activity:

1. Instructor gives minilessons on titles; students take notes in their log/journal (See following page for minilesson) 2. Explain, “As you may have noticed, the chapters in The Catcher in the Rye are not titled. Looking back through chapters 21-23, decide on a title for each chapter. 3. Distribute handout, read through directions

4. Students complete handout in class/for homework. Start the next class meeting having each student share their favorite title and an explanation for naming it as such. TITLE IT!: CREATING EFFECTIVE TITLES Craft Lesson Transparency

A title serves two main purposes:
1. To inform the reader of what the selection will be about 2. To pique the reader’ s interest in the selection

TITLES THAT DON’T WORK (and why):
-Friendship (Too broad and fails to grab the reader’s attention)

-Romeo and Juliet (Do NOT use the title of the work you are writing about)

-Character and Setting Essay (The title of your essay is not the title of the assignment)

REVISED, TITLES THAT WORK!

-A Long-Term Adventure (Narrative on friendship)

-For the Love of Your Life or the Love of Your Family (Persuasive essay, Romeo and Juliet)

-Barren Lands, Barren Hearts (Literary analysis,
Of Mice and Men)

Student Handout

Title me, baby! Name _________________
Give each chapter listed below a title. Consider what happens in the chapter as well as what we learned about the purpose of titles in the title. Below the title, explain how your title fits/relates to the chapter (2-4 sentences.) Feel free to be metaphoric, analytical, serious, or comedic.

Chapter 21/ Your Title
Explain:

Chapter 22/ Your Title
Explain:

Chapter 23/ Your Title
Explain:

Tone in a Tune: Holden’s Theme Song

Standards: 9.9.3 Draw inferences and generalizations supporting with textual evidence
9.10.9 Author’s attitude: tone

Objectives: Students will reinforce their current understanding of tone by applying it to their selection of a theme song for Holden. Students will identify tone in both their chosen song and the novel

Materials: Copy of “Tone in a Tune” handout for each student Access to Internet and printer

Time: 1-2 class periods

Activity:

1. Distribute student handout “Tone in a Tune.” Read directions. 2. Open with Part I—as a class/in pairs.
3. Students complete part II—share out to class some examples 4. Parts III and IV—have students brainstorm on the back of handout, and pair share ideas. You may choose to use the computer lab for lyric research at this time. 5. Students’ complete handout, stapling lyrics to handout. Share with class before collecting.

Optional Extension: A class CD or podcast.

Student Handout

Name_______________

Tone in a Tune: Holden’s Theme Song

Directions: After reviewing the definition and purpose of tone, you will be selecting a song that you think reflects the tone of Holden’s narrative voice. For whatever song you choose, you will need to:

a) Produce a copy of the song’s lyrics
b) Offer three pieces of evidence from the novel and song, that support your interpretation of the tone

I. Review Tone (definition, how does an author express it?)

II. In my opinion, the tone of Holden’s narrative voice is____________. I think

this because____________________________________________________________.

III. The Cut

Title of song:

Title of recording song is from:

Artist:

IV. The Explanation

Explain why the song you selected reflects Holden’s narrative voice. Remember, the song you chose should reflect what Holden says, and how he says it, NOT simply what he does. You will need to provide three examples from the song and the novel supporting your selection. **Attach lyrics of song to this sheet **

Example 1

Passage/incident from The Catcher in the Rye (include page number):

Lyrics from song:

Explain relationship/connection (3-4 full sentences)

Example 2

Passage/incident from The Catcher in the Rye (include page number):

Lyrics from song:

Explain relationship/connection (3-4 full sentences)

Example 3

Passage/incident from The Catcher in the Rye (include page number):

Lyrics from song:

Explain relationship/connection (3-4 full sentences)

Analyzing Art: Approaching Tone Visually

Standard: 9.7.4 Writing strategies & elements of author’s craft

Objective: Students will reinforce current understanding of tone by applying it to how
they view selected art pieces.
Students will visually represent a scene from the novel and convey tone.

Materials: Liner paper/notebooks for note-taking (optional as experience can also be
discussed).
Slides/reproductions of Vincent Van Gogh’s Sunflowers (1888) and The
Starry Night (1889)—must be in color.
Art materials / butcher paper.

Time: 2 class periods

Activity:

1. Open class with a review of what students already know about tone—what it is, how authors express it and so on. 2. Show Sunflowers. Solicit immediate reactions from students. Then, segue to a directed discussion on tone by asking questions about the purpose of color, line, shape, and composition and their impact on the viewer. 3. Switch to The Starry Night. Again, solicit reactions and discuss. Compare purpose and impact. Emphasize differences. 4. Move on to main task—design a poster that portrays a specific scene from the novel and conveys tone. 5. Explain expectations: Work in groups; select a significant scene from the novel; design a poster that uses basic art elements (color, line, shape, composition); and be prepared to present poster to class justifying choices for scene and design. As you and the class have completed the novel at this point, emphasize the importance of considering the entire novel and of doing their best work. 6. Divide class into groups of four to five and go!

7. When all groups have finished, begin presentations. During the presentations, students should track patterns in representations of tone. 8. Close with posing the following two-part question: What is the overall tone of the novel and how does Salinger convey it? Craft Lesson: You Be the ________________ or You Be the Shrink

Standards: 9.8.1 ID sequence of events, main ideas, details 9.9.2 Predict future outcomes
9.9.3 Draw inference and generalizations supporting with textual evidence
9.9.5 Qualities of characters
9.13.5 Expository writing: Response to literature

Objectives: Students will process observation journal notes and compile findings. Students will analyze a character from a point of view other than their own.

Students will present their findings in written and oral forms.

Materials: Copy of “You Be the ________” for each student Observation Notebooks from unit
Copy of the novel
Library Research & Internet Access

Time: 2-3 class meetings

Activity 1: The Road to the Common Assignment Tone Essay

On this track, you will be using the “You Be the ________” handout. This handout functions as the outlining/information gathering portion of students writing. A completed “You Be the ______” packet will prepare students to compose their thesis, and move on to drafting.

1. Pass out copy of “You Be the ________” to each student. 2. Students fill in blank with the role (doctor, teacher, etc,) they have taken on throughout the unit 3. Allow students to peruse the packet, and note where they have questions. Discuss questions as a class. 4. Students will use their observation notebooks as one source of evidence and begin additional research (1-2 days in library/lab). During this time, students search basic psychological disorders. Considering the symptoms they see in Holden, they will, essentially, determine an appropriate diagnosis. Students will complete remainder of packet. 5. Combining work from observation journals and research, students compose thesis, and then begin drafting essay in response to the Common Assignment prompt: What is the tone of The Catcher in the Rye, how is this tone achieved, and what is the impact of the reader? Use one to four literary elements/ devices, and specifics from the text to support your thesis.

Activity 2: The Road to an Alternative Culminating Project
This path could lead to any number of culminating options, here are two: a.) Impromptu CIM Speech: Students present a summary of their analysis of Holden (white lab coat strongly suggested). b) Expository Essay: A letter, from the POV of an analyst to Holden’s parents explaining what is wrong with him (textual evidence required).

1. Distribute copy of “You Be the Shrink” to each student. 2. Explain that they will be analyzing Holden, as if they were the “one psychoanalyst guy” who is working with Holden. 3. Allow students to peruse the packet, and note where they have questions. Discuss questions as a class. 4. Begin research (1-2 days in library/lab). During this time, students will search basic psychological disorders. Considering the symptoms they see in Holden, they will, essentially, determine an appropriate diagnosis. From this point, students complete the remainder of the packet. Student Handout Activity 1 You Be the __________

Patient Data

Name of client ______________________
Date of birth ____________________Age ________
Nationality ____________________ Place of Residence ________________ Family Members/Siblings ________________________
Hair color _________________Eye color ____________
Height ________Weight _________
Marital Status __________Occupation __________________

Physical Symptoms Mental/Emotional Symptoms

Recent Trauma

Recent Trauma

Diagnosis (conflict) Holden is suffering from

Explanation of Diagnosis
Specific examples of symptoms: physical, mental/emotional and results.

1. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

2. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

3. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

4. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

5. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result
Student Handout Activity 2 You Be the Shrink

Patient Data

Name of client ______________________
Date of birth ____________________Age ________
Nationality ____________________ Place of Residence ________________ Family Members/Siblings ________________________
Hair color _________________Eye color ____________
Height ________Weight _________
Marital Status __________Occupation __________________

Physical Symptoms Mental/Emotional Symptoms

Recent Trauma

Recent Trauma

Diagnosis (conflict) Holden is suffering from
Treatment Plan

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Release Patient When:

After-Care Requirements

1.

2.

3.

4.

Explanation of Diagnosis
Specific examples of symptoms: physical, mental/emotional and results.

1. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

2. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

3. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

4. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result

5. Symptom:
Example (including textual citation):

Outcome/result
You Be the Shrink - CITR Final Rubric

Part One/Patient Data
• Detailed information is based upon text of CITR, and when necessary, imagined information demonstrates understanding and application of 1950’s culture covered at the start of unit. • Symptoms are logically connected to CITR, and evidence knowledge of the events. • Recent Trauma is explained succinctly, in full sentences, and connected to text. • Diagnosis complete based upon student opinion and research.

2015105

Part Two/ Explanation of Diagnosis
• Must include textual reference, clear and thoughtful explanation, outcome should reflect how symptom shapes the novel.

Symptom 11073

Symptom 21073

Symptom 31073

Symptom 41073

Symptom 51073

Part Three/Treatment Plan & Etc.
• Nine steps for plan completed. Four after-care requirements fulfilled; both afore mentioned done so using logic and researched information. • Release for patient illustrates awareness of Holden’s life and others in the novel. • Complete sentences and spelling corrected.

30252015105

TOTAL________/100

Revision Support

Standards: 9.12.1 Ideas and Content
9.12.2 Organization
9.12.3 Voice
9.12.4 Word Choice
9.12.5 Sentence Fluency

Objective: Students will understand the difference between drafting and revising piece of writing.
Students will evaluate the effectiveness of their ideas, organization, word choice, voice, and sentence fluency. Students will alter original draft so that it reflects a stronger understanding of effective writing.

Materials: Student set of Write Source
Teacher Edition of Write Source
Students’ Literary Analysis drafts

Time: 1-2 class periods

Overview: Pages 273 through 284 in Write Source discuss, model, and offer activities for revising a literary analysis essay. Note, however, that the sample essay is specific to analyzing a theme, and anticipate making slight adjustments. The Teacher Edition offers suggestions for process and provides support for ELL and reluctant writers as well. For directed lessons on Transitions, Thesis Statements, Writing Beginnings, Developing Endings, and Integrating Quotations, also see pp. 592-597.

Also consider consulting the 2007 High School Summer Curriculum Institute’s Freshman Focus on Literary Analysis Packet that specifically addresses writing an analysis on tone.

Editing Support

Standards:9.12.1 Ideas & content
9.12.2 Organization
9.12.4 Word Choice
9.12.6 Conventions

Objective: Students will proofread their writing to locate conventions errors. Students will make all necessary changes so that their writing reflects final copy quality.

Materials: Student set of Write Source
Teacher Edition of Write Source
Students’ Literary Analysis revised drafts
Markers/color pencils/crayons for proofreading

Time: 1-2 class periods

Overview: Pages 285 through 288 in Write Source discuss, model, and offer activities for proofreading and editing a literary analysis essay. Note, however, that the sample essay is specific to analyzing a theme and anticipate making slight adjustments. The Teacher Edition offers suggestions for process and provides support for ELL and reluctant writers as well. It is recommended that in addition to students checking their own writing, you allow them to work in pairs and/or small groups so that students receive objective feedback and support.

Also consider consulting the 2007 High School Summer Curriculum Institute’s Freshman Focus on Literary Analysis Packet that specifically addresses writing an analysis on tone.

-----------------------
Student Handout

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