The Brief Introduction of ECG

Powerful Essays
Origin of the ECG signal
Shi Zhu
Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering
University of Ottawa
Ottawa, Canada
Szhu060@uottawa.ca

Abstract—the technical report paper mainly introduces the concepts of heart and ECG signal and how the blood flow through the heart from the entrance of the heart to the entire body. Also, this paper describes some procedures of electrical activation of the heart and the genesis of the electrocardiogram like polarization and depolarization waves. That the point at different direction of cardiac vector is also discussed. Further, the paper describes some segments of ECG waveform which can identify the segments and how ECG signal can be used to distinguish between different arrhythmias.
Keywords—the ECG signals; waveform; cardiac activity; electrocardiogram; cardiac vector
I. Introduction
The heart is the most important organ in both human body and vertebrate animals. The main function is like a pump to push blood to all areas in the body and supply the nutrition to the cells. The heart is located in the chest between the lungs behind the sternum and above the diaphragm as shown in Figure.1. Its size is like a fist and the weight is around 250-300g[1]. The heart of woman is smaller than that of man in size and lighter usually. A human heart consists of four compartments: the right and left atriums and ventricles. The walls of the heart consist of cardiac muscle, called myocardium. Interval separates atriums and ventricles to right and left valves, so the blood entered into the heart can not go through the atriums and ventricles respectively. There are two valves between the atrium and the ventricle on the two sides (left and right). Valves are between atrium and ventricle on both sides and can make the blood flow only from the atrium into the ventricle, and the blood can not go back. The internal structure of the heart is shown in the Figure.2.

Fig. 1 The location of the heart in the thorax [2]

Fig. 2 The internal view of



References: [1] Jaakko Malmivuo & Robert Plonsey: Bioelectromagnetism - Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995. [2] Williams PL, Warwick R (eds.) (1989): Gray 's Anatomy, 37th ed., 1598 pp. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh [3] The structure of the heart can be found at the website http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/cardiovascular/heart/structure.html [4] Walraven, G. (2011). Basic arrhythmias (7th ed.), pp. 1–11. [5] Netter FH (1971): Heart, Vol. 5, 293 pp. The Ciba Collection of Medical Illustrations, Ciba Pharmaceutical Company, Summit, N.J. [6] Jaakko Malmivuo & Robert Plonsey: Bioelectromagnetism - Principles and Applications of Bioelectric and Biomagnetic Fields, Oxford University Press, New York, 1995, chapter 6. [8] Andrew R Houghton; David Gray (27 January 2012). Making Sense of the ECG, Third Edition. Hodder Education. p. 214.  [9] Clinical Engineering [15] J Otero,DJ Lenihan - Texas Heart Institute Journal, The "Normothermic" Osborn Wave Induced by Severe Hypercalcemia, 2000. [16] Mandel, William J., ed. (1995). Cardiac Arrhythmias: Their Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Management (3 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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