Alexander, Michelle. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness. New York : [Jackson, Tenn.]: New Press ; HV9950 .A437 2010
The Birth of Slavery in the US
1. In the 17th century labor for plantations was based on indentured servitude. 2. 1675 Bacon's Rebellion
3. By 1770 "By the mid-1770s, the system of bond labor had been thoroughly transformed into a racial caste system predicated on slavery.
"Racial division was a consequence, not a precondition of slavery, but once it was instituted it became detached from its initial function and acquired a social potency all its own.” Loïc Wacquant, “America’s New ‘Peculiar Institution’: On the Prison as Surrogate Ghetto,” Theoretical Criminology 4, no. 3 (2000)
The Death of Slavery in the US
1. Emancipation Proclamation 1863
"Following the Civil War, it was unclear what institutions, laws, or customs would be necessary to maintain white control now that slavery was gone. Nonetheless, as numerous historians have shown, the development of a new racial order became the consuming passion for most white Southerners. Rumors of a great insurrection terrified whites, and blacks increasingly came to be viewed as menacing and dangerous. In fact, the current stereotypes of black men as aggressive, unruly predators can be traced to this period, when whites feared that an angry mass of black men might rise up and attack them or rape their women." [Michelle Alexander, Cornel West, The New Jim Crow]
2. 14th Amendment 1868
3. 15th Amendment 1870
4. "Black Codes" in South
"As expressed by one Alabama planter: “We have the power to pass stringent police laws to govern the Negroes—this is a blessing—for they must be controlled in some way or white people cannot live among them.” While some of these codes were intended to establish systems of peonage resembling slavery, others foreshadowed Jim Crow laws by prohibiting, among other things, interracial seating in the first-class sections of railroad cars and by segregating schools." [Michelle Alexander, Cornel West, The New Jim Crow]
5. "Black Codes" overturned under reconstruction.
"Southern conservatives vowed to reverse Reconstruction and sought the “abolition of the Freedmen’s Bureau and all political instrumentalities designed to secure Negro supremacy.” Their campaign to “redeem” the South was reinforced by a resurgent Ku Klux Klan, which fought a terrorist campaign against Reconstruction governments and local leaders, complete with bombings, lynchings, and mob violence.", [Michelle Alexander, Cornel West, The New Jim Crow]
6. Reconstruction 1863-1877 (Disputed election of 1876 was given to Republican Hayes, but an agreement to withdraw federal troops from the South and an end to reconstruction left the Democrats in control of the South for more than a century.)
The Birth of Jim Crow in the US
7. Plessy v. Ferguson – "separate but equal" standard set – 1896
8. Three philosophies of race during and after reconstruction a. Liberal – paternalistic emphasis on stigma of segregation and hypocrisy of government
b. Conservative – blames liberals for pushing blacks too far and warned blacks that things could be worse under the Redeemers
c. Radical – populist movement of poor whites and blacks against planters, railroads, and big business
"The Populists took direct aim at the conservatives, who were known as comprising a party of privilege, and they achieved a stunning series of political victories throughout the region. Alarmed by the success of the Populists and the apparent potency of the alliance between poor and working-class whites and African Americans, the conservatives raised the cry of white supremacy and resorted to the tactics they had employed in their quest for Redemption, including fraud, intimidation, bribery, and terror." [Michelle Alexander, Cornel West, The New Jim Crow] 9. Segregation laws put a wedge between black and white just as slavery and racial ideology was the response to...
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