The Autonomic Nervous System: Understanding Essentials

Pages: 15 (3413 words) Published: November 16, 2013
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THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM:
UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS
(v2013, long sheet) Lecturer: D.G. Simbulan, Jr., PhD
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------Outline: I.
Introduction
II.
Comparison between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems III.
Anatomical and Physiological features of ANS
IV.
Metabolism of Neurotransmitters; Main form of removal from synaptic cleft/ junctional cleft V.
Receptor Pharmacology and Membrane Potentials
VI.
Interactions of the Autonomic Divisions
VII.
Central Nervous Integration and Control of Autonomic Functions VIII. SPECIAL FOCUS on the Classic Neurotransmitters; Introduction to the Nonclassic Neurotransmitters And Co-Transmitters of the ANS

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. Introduction 1. What are the two general motor subdivisions of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) ? 2 Enumerate briefly the functions of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)? 3. What are the classical two divisions of the ANS originating from the central nervous system (CNS)? Give the role of each of these divisions ? (These will be the main focus of this lecture module.)

4. What is a third division of the ANS which can function independently of the two earlier divisions? Give the role of this third division. (This was part of the module on the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT). II. Comparison between the somatic and

autonomic nervous systems
A. Regarding effectors innervated:
1. What kind of effectors (tissues/ organs) does the somatic nervous system innervate ? 2. What kind of effectors does the autonomic nervous system innervate ? B. Efferent pathways:
1. Where is the cell body (soma) of the motor/efferent neurons of the somatic nervous sytem located ?
2. Do motor neurons (of the somatic nervous system) have ganglia ? 3. How many neurons comprise the efferent system of the autonomic nervous system ? 4. Which conducts nerve impulses faster -- the somatic or autonomic nervous system ? Why ?

5. What are the two efferent neurons comprising the autonomic nervous system called ? 6. Where is the cell body of the preganglionic neuron of the ANS located ? If it comes from the spinal cord, what part of the spinal cord is the soma of a preganglionic neuron located ? (dorsal /posterior horn ? intermediolateral horn ? ventral/ anterior horn ?)

C. Neurotransmitters/chemical messengers and their effects:
1. What neurotransmitter is released by somatic neurons at their junctions with their effector organs ? Is the effect excitatory or inhibitory ?
2. What neurotransmitter is released by all preganglionic neurons ? 3. What is the principal neurotransmitter released by sympathetic postganglionic neurons ? 4. What is the principal neurotransmitter released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons ?

5. Are all effector responses to acetylcholine inhibitory? excitatory ? (refer to Table of responses to cholinergic stimulation in appropriate textbooks, summarizing effects on peripheral tissues.)

6. Are all effector responses to norepinephrine inhibitory ? excitatory ? (refer to Table of responses to adrenergic stimulation in appropriate textbooks, summarizing effects on peirpheral tissues.)

7. What hormones are released by the adrenal medulla upon sympathetic nervous stimulation ? What are their general effects ?

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D. Functional Coordination between Somatic and Autonomic Nervous Systems 1. Briefly give an example of how the somatic and autonomic nervous systems coordinate in your daily life to achieve a response in the body.

III. Anatomical and Physiological Features of the Autonomic Nervous System (Look at any map of the Autonomic Nervous System to answer these questions correctly, and any Table of Responses to Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Stimulation.) A. Sites of origin : thoracolumbar origin versus...
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