The analysis of texts

Topics: Past tense, Grammatical tense, Present tense Pages: 11 (2310 words) Published: May 23, 2014

The analysis of texts

1. Old English – The story of Jacob’s Deceit

17. And hēo sealde him Þone mete Þe heo seaÞ, and hlāf; and hē brōhte Þæt his fæder 18. and cwæð: 'Fæder mīn!' Hē andswarode and cwæð: 'Hwæt eart Þū, sunu mīn?' 19. And Iācob cwæð: 'Ic eom Ēsau, Þīn frum-cenneda sunu. Ic dyde swā Þū mē bebude. Ārīs upp and site, and et of mīnum huntoðe, Þæt Þu me blētsiƷe.'

Translation:

17. And she sold him that meat she boiled, and bread, and he brought them to his father. 18. and said: “Oh, my father!” he answered and said: “What are you(what do you want), my son?” 19. And Iacob said: “I am Esau, your first-born son. I did what you bid me. Arise up and sit and eat what I got of my hunting, so that you bless me”

Phonetic analysis

Word as it is used in the text
Analysis notes
Corresponding
word
Translation
1. sealde
[ea]-breaking of [a] before l consonant,[e] – palatal mutation of [a], ll- doubling due to loss of [j] sell
sold
2. cwæð
[æ] – from Common Germanic,
ð –[ θ] according to Verner’s law the 3d and 4th form of this verb became voiced [θ]-> [ ð] – “consonant gradation”
с –[k]
obs. quoth
quote
3. swā
[ā] – from Comm.Germ. [ai]
so
so
4. eart
[ea] - breaking of [æ] before r consonant.
are
are
5. hwæt
[æ] – from PG [a]
a->>æ
v->w
what
what
6. hlāf
[f] – voiceless, in intervocal position
hlaford, it would be [v] , h-[h]
loaf
bread
7. huntoðe
ð – [ð] in intervocal position,
h-[h]
hunting
hunting
8. blētsiƷe
Ʒ – [j] –before and after front vowels
s – [s]
bless
bless
9. Þæt
Þ – [θ] 0 initially voiceless, [æ] from PG [ā]
that
that
10. fæder
Latin – pater, according to Verner’s law the Germanic voiceless fricative consonants became voiced after unstressed vowels. [t] ->>Com.Germ.[θ]->>Verner’s Law [ð]->> “hardening” [d] father
father, отец

Grammatical analysis

Etymological analysis

Word as it is used in the text
Foreign prototype
Corresponding NE words
translation
1. sealde
past.ind. of sellan, old Sax. – sellian, old High Germ. –sellen, old Scand. – selja, Goth.- saljan

sell

sold
2. cwæð
old High Germ quedan, old Scand. kveða, Goth -diÞan
obs. quoth
quote
3. swā
Comm. Germ. –swai, Germ – so, old Scand. –svá, Goth. –swā, swē so
so
4. eart
Angl. – earon, ært
are
are
5. hwæt
Old Scan. –ƕat, L - quod
what
what
6. hlāf
Germ. –liab, old Scand.—hleifr, Goth.-laifs, ср.Рус. -хлҌбъ loaf
bread
7. huntoðe
old. Fr.-hurter
hunting
hunting
8. blētsiƷe
Early Nortumbr. -bloedsia
bless
bless
9. Þæt
Germ. –die, der, das. Old Scand.- sá, Þat, Goth. –sa,sō, Þata. Greek –ho, hē that
that
10. fæder
Latin – pater
father
father, отец

2. Middle English – From Capgrave’s Chronicle of England

[1394]

In the XVIII. Ʒere the Kyng held his Parlement at Dulyn, and thidir com alle the lordes that had mad subjeccion onto him. And in that same tyme, Edmund, duke of York, Keper of Ynglond, held a Parlement at London; to whech Parlement cam the duke of Gloucetir fro Yrlond, expressing the Kyngis costis in Yrlond: and his legacion was so acceptabil, that the clergy graunted him a dyme, and the lay fe a fiftene. In this tyme the Lolardis set up scrowis at West­minster and at Poules, with abhominable accusaciones of hem that long to the Cherch, whech sounded in destruccioune of the Sacramentis, and of statutes of the Cherch. The meyteyneris of the puple that were so infect were these:—Richard Storry, Lodewik Clifforth, Thomas Latymer, Jon Mountagw. Thei were prin­cipal instructouris of heretikes. The Kyng, whan he had conceyved the malice of these men, he cleped hem to his presens, and snybbed hem; forbad hem eke thei schuld no more meynten no swech materea. Of Richard Story he took a hooth; for he swore on a book that he schuld nevyr meynten no swech opiniones. And aftir this hooth the Kyng saide,—"And I swere here onto the, If evyr thou breke thin ooth, thou schal deye a foul deth." Thei...
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