The Americanization policies said that when indigenous people learned American customs and values they would soon merge tribal traditions with European-American culture and peacefully melt into the greater society. The Dawes Act of 1887, which allotted tribal lands to individuals and resulted in an estimated total of 93 million acres leaving Native American lands, and the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 were also part of these policies. Laws and policies were never upheld. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 characterized the US government policy of Indian removal, which called for the relocation of Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. While it did not authorize the forced removal of the indigenous tribes, it authorized the President to negotiate land exchange treaties with tribes located in lands of the United States. The Intercourse Law of 1834 prohibited United States citizens from entering tribal lands granted by such treaties without permission, though it was often ignored. While the Indian Removal Act made the relocation of the tribes voluntary, it was often abused by government officials. The best known example is the Treaty of New Echota. It was negotiated and signed by a small faction of Cherokee tribal members, not the tribal leadership, on December 29, 1835, resulting in the forced relocation of the tribe in 1838. An estimated 4,000 Cherokees died in the march, now known as the Trail of Tears. From the 1830s until 1870, the abolitionist movement attempted to achieve immediate emancipation of all slaves and the ending of racial segregation and discrimination stressing the moral imperative to end sinful practices and each person's responsibility to uphold God's will in society. Preachers like Lyman Beecher, Nathaniel Taylor, and Charles G. Finney in what came to be called the Second Great Awakening led massive religious revivals in the 1820s that gave a major impetus to the later emergence of abolitionism as well as to such other reforming crusades as temperance, pacifism, and women's rights. By the later 1850s, organized abolitionism in politics had been subsumed by the larger sectional crisis over slavery prompted by the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the Dred Scott decision, and John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry The main reason that the Irish people immigrated to the United States is to escape the widespread Potato Famine that plagued the country. Many Americans during this time held the view that Irish-Americans were dirty, lazy and stupid. They were credited for the economic problems and the degradation of American society. With the British suppressing Irish citizens and their Catholic religion, a move to America seemed to be the answer to a better life. The Embargo Ace (Dec. 22, 1807), which prohibited virtually all exports and most imports and was supplemented by enforcing legislation, was designed to coerce British and French recognition of American rights. In 1769 he began six years of service as a representative in the Virginia House of Burgesses. appointed on June 11, 1776, to head a committee of five in preparing the Declaration of Independence. Declaration of Independence made Jefferson internationally famous. Years later that fame evoked the jealousy of John Adams, who complained that the declaration's ideas were "hackneyed." Jefferson agreed; he wrote of the declaration. when he wrote a political pamphlet, A Summary View of the Rights of British America. Arguing on the basis of natural rights theory, Jefferson claimed that colonial allegiance to the king was voluntary. "The God who gave us life," he wrote, "gave us liberty at the same time: the hand of force may destroy, but cannot disjoin them."