A musculoskeletal disorder is a condition where parts of the musculoskeletal system are injured over time. Musculoskeletal pain is pain that affects the muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones. Musculoskeletal pain can be localized in one area or widespread and can be acute or chronic. The most common pain is in the lower back but can also include tendonitis, myalgia (muscle pain), and stress fractures. Injuries are often caused to the bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves. Injuries can be caused by many things over time but can also be caused by jerking movements, car accidents, fractures, sprains, dislocations, falls, and direct blows to the muscles. Poor posture or prolonged immobilization can also cause musculoskeletal pain. The likely effects on the everyday life of an 84 year old thin, small boned white female is considered based on her early years. One example of a musculoskeletal disorder is osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become weak and are more likely to break, due to bone tissues thinning. Osteoporosis can occur in men and women but it is most common in white women over the age of 65. Risk factors are:
* Gender. Women
* Age. The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. * Body size. Small, thin women are at greater risk.
* Ethnicity. White and Asian women are at highest risk. Black and Hispanic women have a lower risk. * Family history. Osteoporosis tends to run in families. If a family member has osteoporosis or breaks a bone, there is a greater chance that you will too. There are lifestyle risks as well:
* Sex hormones. Low estrogen levels due to missing menstrual periods or to menopause can cause osteoporosis in women. Low testosterone levels can bring on osteoporosis in men. * Anorexia nervosa. This eating disorder can lead to osteoporosis. * Calcium and vitamin D intake. A diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss. * Medication...
References: Cleveland Clinic. (2009, 12 30). Musculoskeletal Pan. Retrieved from In Cleveland Clinic: http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/musculoskeletal_pain/hic_musculoskeletal_pain.aspx
David C. Dugdale, I. M. (2012, 2 5). Muscle Atrophy. Retrieved from MedLine Plus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003188.htm
NIAMS. (2011, January). What is Osteoporosis. Retrieved from Osteoporosis: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/Osteoporosis/osteoporosis_ff.asp
The Arthritis Foundation. (2013, August 23). What is Arthritis. Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/what-is-osteoarthritis.php
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