African-Americans have been systematically mistreated and unequally viewed by society. From first contact, social stigma and power relations subjugated the race to extremely harsh living conditions. This systematic mistreatment of African-Americans continued for over 300 years, until they operationalized political movements and used their independent and unique agency to overcome the hardships. Two outstanding examples of these social and political uprisings are the Civil Rights Movement and the Harlem Renaissance.
The Civil Rights Movement was characterized by a multitude of political and social movements around the world that were aimed at making racial discrimination against African-Americans illegal. The main stipulation was due to the lack of voting rights and the ability to evoke the rights of most other citizens. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was the culmination of many different happenings throughout the time period. Figures such as Martin Luther King Jr., Huey Newton, and Bobby Seale lead the way and spearheaded a movement that had gained a lot of political momentum. Events such as the desegregation of schools in Brown vs. Board of Education and the Montgomery Bus Boycott with Rosa Parks established a social movement against the previously accepted and followed standards of society. The social uproar caused by the mobilization of local communities coming together and adopting a platform to create and implement large-scale social movements against the racist policies of white civil society was an example of mass action was used to politicize the injustices that were incurred by African-Americans. Due to the large inefficiencies and problems caused by the plethora of boycotts, and other versions of civil resistance and disobedience, the political entities in charge had to change the policies in order to avoid and solve many of the social issues that were caused due to the non-violent protests. The Civil Rights