THE ADVANCEMENT IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN MALAYSIA
Since 1988, the government has implemented a centralized grant system of financing science and technology (S&T) research in public institutions and research agencies. The Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) is the lead ministry that formulates policies in the area of science, technology and innovation. The science and technology policy that was announced on April 1986 has its own vision that is to become the lead section in strategic planning of policies in Science, Technology and Innovation for knowledge generation, wealth creation and societal well-being. MOSTI also implements many programmes related to the promotion of S&T and national R&D activities. Hence, it is not more surprising when the government spent a lot of money in order to develop the science and technology sectors. This is because the advancement of science and technology can improve the Malaysian’s quality of life especially in the aspects of telecommunications, health and agricultures. With the development of science and technology in these fields, it can bring many benefits to the human being. We can communicate easily to each other, improve the health of Malaysian citizens and improved crop production especially in terms of quantity and quality. These only can happen with the advancement of science and technology in our country. One of the advancement of science and technology in Malaysia is the launched of the communications satellite. The first communication satellites in Malaysia, MEASAT-1 was launched in January 1996 and MEASAT-2 was launched in November 1996. MEASAT-1 was located in a geostationary orbit at 91.5 degrees east, and MEASAT-2 was located in a geostationary orbit at 148 degrees east. MEASAT is the short form of Malaysia East Asia Satellite and operated by the MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd which is formerly known as Binariang Satellite Systems Sdn. Bhd , a Malaysian communications satellite operator. Then, on 26 September 2000, TiungSAT-1 the first Malaysian microsatellite in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) was launched. The micro satellite was released into its orbit and the communication between the earth's control system at the ATSB Earth Control Station which is situated at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) was made. Communication satellites work by sending the signals, which travel in straight lines and could not bend around the round Earth to reach a destination far away. Because satellites are in orbit, the signals can be sent instantaneously into space and then redirected to another satellite or directly to their destination. The satellite can have a passive role in communications like bouncing signals from the earth back to another location on the earth. The satellite stationed at the space receives signals from the earth with the aid of an antenna. The signals are amplified to an optimum level and then with the help of transponders they are retransmitted back to the earth. The earth station then receives the signal from the satellite, and reamplifies it and helps in the communication. Hence in this mode of communication, it was the satellite which helped in the transmission of signals from the earth and then back to the earth. The developments of the communication satellites in Malaysia improve Malaysian’s quality of life by improving the telecommunication systems in this country. Communication satellites are very crucial as the communications satellites allow radio, television, and telephone transmissions to be sent live anywhere in the world. Before satellites exist, transmissions were difficult or impossible at long distances. The usage of communications satellite that is commonly known is the television broadcasting. For example, Astro (All-Asian Satellite Television and Radio Operator) is the brand name of the Malaysian direct broadcast satellite (DBS) Pay TV service. It transmits digital satellite television and radio to households in...
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