Groups and Organizations
I. A social group is defined as two or more people who identify and interact with one another. A.
Primary and secondary groups.
1. A primary group is a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships. a.
People in primary groups share many activities, spend a great deal of time together, and feel they know one another well. b.
Families are primary groups in that they are the first groups we experience in life and because they are of central importance in the socialization process. c.
Members think of the group as an end in itself rather than as a means to other ends. d.
Members view each other as unique and irreplaceable.
2. Secondary groups are large and impersonal social groups devoted to some specific interest or activity. a.
They involve weak emotional ties.
They are commonly short term.
They are goal oriented.
They are typically impersonal.
Instrumental leadership emphasizes the completion of tasks; expressive leadership emphasizes collective well-being. 2.
There are three styles of decision-making in groups:
a. Authoritarian leadership focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision-making, and demands strict compliance from subordinates. b. Democratic leadership is more expressive and tries to include everyone in the decision-making process. c. Laissez-faire leadership allows the group to function more or less on its own. C.
Asch’s (1952) research into group conformity showed that many of us are willing to compromise our own judgment and to avoid being different, even from people we do not know. 2.
Milgram’s (1963) research into obedience suggests that people are likely to follow directions from not only “legitimate authority figures,” but also groups of ordinary individuals, even when it means inflicting harm on another person. 3.
Janis’s (1972, 1989) research dealt with a process called groupthink,...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document