IN THE GRAMMAR-TRANSLATION METHOD AND THE DIRECT METHOD
In this essay I am going to give some explanations taken from different books about what a method in second language teaching is. After that I am going to explain in a brief way, what in my opinion a method is. Furthermore, I am going to set my theory in a very specific context; culture, country, education, system, characteristics of the learners… Moreover, I am going to define two different methods: The grammar-translation method and the direct method. And I am going to provide my personal opinion about those methods. Also I am going to explain why I have chosen them according to my own experience as learner. Besides, I am going to take some features from the two methods explained before and I am going to combine them to create what I consider a more useful method. And to conclude, I am going to give a summary of the paper, and of the conclusions I have reached at the end of it.
The concept of method in language teaching is the idea that there is a collection of teaching practices based in a determined theory of language and of language learning. According to Richards and Rodgers’ (2001: 20) definition: ‘A method is theoretically related to an approach, is organizationally determined by a design, and is practically realized in procedure’.
Personally, I think that a method in language teaching is a program that all teachers should follow to teach a language. Each program is based on the different sections of language teaching such as reading, writing, listening and grammar. Some methods that nowadays are being applied are: the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method, the Audiolingual Method, Community Language Teaching, the Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response, and the Natural Approach. Each of those methods is applied in a different context. Depending on the necessities of the students, the teacher could apply one or other method. If the student wants to improve grammar, the teacher may use the grammar translation method. If the student wants to improve communication, the teacher may use the direct, the audiolingual method, the suggestopedia method or the natural approach.
Along the history of language teaching there has been a great debate about the differences between method and approach, some teachers believe that there is no difference between method and approach and that both merge in just one category; method. According to Richard and Rodgers (2001: 20): “Approach refers to theories about the nature of language and language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching.” On the other hand: “Design (Method) is the level of method analysis in which we consider (a) what the objectives of a method are; (b) how language content is selected and organized within the method, that is, the syllabus model the method incorporates; (c) the types of learning tasks and teaching activities the method advocates; (d) the roles of learners; (e) the role of teachers; and (f) the role of instruction materials.”
In my opinion an approach is a set of theories and principles about the nature of language, and a method (design) is the way you apply these theories and principles.
This method is thought to be applied in secondary schools. The level of the students towards this method is going to be applied is intermediate level. The country in which this method is thought to be applied is Spain. The learners are going to have English as L2. The teachers are going to teach all the theory in English, but in some occasions they will use the mother tongue of the students. Because, although they understand the basic concepts in English, they do not have enough level to understand the whole lesson. The teacher will have to prepare in a great way his classes because he has to enjoy the student, to maintain their attention. In order to obtain their concentration, the teacher will...
Bibliography: -Richard, J.C & Rodgers, T.S (2003). Enfoques y métodos en la enseñanza de idiomas. Cambridge University Press.
-Larsen-Freeman, D & Long, H.M (1991). An introduction to second language acquisition research. Longman. London and New York.
-Hinkel, Eli. (1999). Culture in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Cambridge Univerity Press.
-Ellis, Rod. (1991). Second Language Acqusition and Language Pedagogy. Multilingual Matters LTD.
-Hinkel, Eli. (2005). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Laurence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
-Tim Bowen. Teaching approaches: the grammar-translation method.http://www.onestopenglish.com/support/methodology/teaching-approaches/teaching-approaches-the-grammar-translation-method/146493.article. 13/04/2011
-The Grammar Translation Method.http://www.englishraven.com/method_gramtrans.html. 13/04/2011
- The Direct Method.http://www.englishraven.com/method_direct.html#anchor_2932. 13/04/2011
-Yesica Hermita,2009, Grammar Translation Method and Direct method in teaching reading at LPIA MARGONDA DEPOK. http://papers.gunadarma.ac.id/index.php/letter/article/viewFile/118/113. 13/04/2011.
-The Grammar-Translation method. teaching approaches.ppt http://spaces.isu.edu.tw/upload/18518/9601/TEFL/teaching%20approaches.ppt.13/04/2011
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