Terrorism in India
The regions with long term terrorist activities today are Jammu and Kashmir, Mumbai, Central India (Naxalism) and the Seven Sister States (independence and autonomy movements). As of 2006, at least 232 of the country’s 608 districts were afflicted, at differing intensities, by various insurgent and terrorist movements. In August 2008, National Security Advisor M K Narayanan has said that there are as many as 800 terrorist cells operating in the country.
India has been accused by the Government of Pakistan of funding, supporting and arming designated anti-state terrorist or militant groups in Pakistan, as well of having direct involvement or links in many terrorist attacks inside the country, throughout multiple occasions in history.[self-published source?] During the Soviet war in Afghanistan in the 1970s and 1980s, the Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) of India was blamed of possible involvement in the planning and execution of several terrorist incidents inside Pakistan to "deter Pakistani support of the Afghan liberation movement against India's ally, the Soviet Union."[self-published source?] In particular, it was believed to have provided assistance to the KGB intelligence agency, which at the time was believed to have a considerable network of terrorist activities inside Pakistani cities. Intelligence reports during the time suggested that several training camps had been simultaneously established in Indian Punjab; these camps were accused of providing training to anti-Pakistan elements.[self-published source?]
Map of North India with Punjab, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh highlighted. RAW was alleged to have operated several camps in these states.[self-published source?]
RAW has been alleged of involvement in disinformation campaigns, espionage and sabotage operations in Pakistan. During the 1990s, published reports suggested that as many as 35,000 RAW agents entered Pakistan during the period 1983-93. Out of these agents, as many as 12,000 were working in Sindh, 10,000 in Punjab, 8,000 in the North-West Frontier Province and some 5,000 in Balochistan.[self-published source?] RAW was further alleged of aiding several dissident elements affiliated with various sectarian and ethnic groups. Several small-scale terrorist incidents that occurred in Pakistani cities such as Peshawar, Lahore, Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Rawalpindi and Sheikhupura during the mid 1990s were attributed to the "clandestine activities" of the Indian intelligence agency.[self-published source?]
The then-Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and many senior ministers within the Pakistani government condemned India for the upsurge of terrorist incidents, as well as for having a hand in sporadic Sunni-Shi'a sectarian conflicts in the country.[self-published source?]
According to Paul R. Pillar in Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy, India is likely engaged in small-scale terrorism in Pakistan. He notes that India's activities may be in reprisal for what it is has alleged as "Pakistani-supported activity in Kashmir".
The closest thing to a major power supporting terrorism is India ... But whatever it is doing is on a small scale and aimed solely at Pakistan, not at U.S. power and influence.
—Paul R. Pillar (2004), Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy, pp.51