The Case of the Terrible Tooth!
Part 1 --The Dentist
1. List the symptoms experienced by Mr. Gower.
Mr. Grower experiences symptoms such as feeling hot, and light headedness, and unawareness. He felt hot and warm prior to the root canal removal. Therefore this symptom is most likely hinting at some problems he got before the removal. His symptoms of lightheadedness could be due to the effects of the surgery or anesthetic. Need more information to be sure.
2. Novocain blocks action potential production at the site of injection. How do you think Novocain works on the axon membrane, and how does it block the sensation of pain? Novocain serves to block receptors on nerve cells that sense pain. Therefore preventing neurotransmitter from binding to the receptors and stimulating sensory neurons to fire. More specifically Novocain blocks the sodium channel and prevents depolarization from occurring in the neurons of the site of injection. Because of this an action potential is not possible and neurotransmitter cannot be release.
3. What new symptoms does Mr. Gower exhibit?
Mr. Grower now experience a stiff jaw with extreme mouth pain, a lower than normal blood pressure of 100 over 60, weakness, and muscle fatigue.
4. Which of these symptoms could be due to the previous day’s procedure? The stiff jaw and extreme mouth pain could most likely be due to the previous day operation. This is because the mouth was operated on and the after effects of a root canal removal is starting to kick in. However the lowered blood pressure, muscle weakness, and fatigue could be due to an initial problem before the root canal.
5. Why can’t Mr. Gower open his mouth?
Mr. Gower cannot open his mouth because his jaw is in a lock state. This is most likely caused by abnormally high frequency of excitatory postsynaptic potential or EPSP in his jaw muscles. This well cause involuntary contraction of those muscle essentially locking up his jaw.
6. What are the possible diagnoses for Mr. Gower’s condition at this time? For each diagnosis that you come up with, describe the symptoms that relate to that diagnosis One possible diagnosis is that Mr. Grower has temporal mandibular disorder. The symptoms for this includes pain in jaw area, lock jaw, and feeling fatigue or dizzy. Another possible diagnosis is the Mr. Grower has Tetanus disease. The symptoms for this includes involuntary muscle contraction in area of infection, restlessness, lock jaw, and difficulties breathing.
Part 3--Day 3
7. What new symptoms does Mr. Gower exhibit?
Mr. Grower now experiences sweating from a fever, rigid neck, dry mouth, and locked lips. These symptoms are closer associated with Tetanus disease.
8. Is there a common factor between his jaw being locked shut, his rigid neck, and his lips being drawn across his mouth in a constant grin? The common factor is that all these symptoms occurs near his mouth area. Inferring from this and his fever it is very possible there is a Tetanus infection near his mouth area possibly from the root canal removal. This infection is currently spreading and inflammatory responses are causing his fever.
9. Look at the diagram of three nerve cells on the right. At the bottom, there is a postsynaptic cell, which receives chemical synapses from two presynaptic cells, which are shown at the top of the diagram. One of the presynaptic cells is labeled excitatory and the other is labeled inhibitory. Assume that a single action potential in a presynaptic cell does not produce an action potential in the postsynaptic cell. Show (by drawing a graph of membrane potential against time) how the membrane potential of the postsynaptic cell changes if there is one action potential in: a. Only the excitatory presynaptic cell.
On back of case study
b. Only the inhibitory presynaptic cell.
On back of case study
c. Both the inhibitory and the...
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