CHRONOLOGY OF ORGANIZATION THEORY AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES
| INDIVIDUAL OR ETHNIC GROUPS
| MAJOR MANAGERIAL CONTRIBUTION
| 5000 BC
| Established written records for both government and commercial use
| 4000-2000 BC
| Recognized need for forecasting, planning, organizing, and controlling. Employed inventory practices, sales ledgers, taxes, developed bureaucracy for agriculture and construction, i.e, pyramids; employed full-time administrators.
| 4000 B.C
| Exception principle, departmentation;Ten commandments; long-range planning, span of control.
| 2000-1700 BC
| Enforced law for conducting business, including standards for wages and obligations of contractors. Use of witnesses and writing for control; establishment of standards of wages; recognition that responsibilty responsibilty cannot be shifted.
| Centralization in organization
| During Exodus from Egypt,Jethro, father-in-law of Moses to delegate authorirty over the tribes of Israel along heirarchical lines.Concepts of organization, scalar principle, exeception principle.
| Recognized need for organization, planning, directing, and controlling
| Production control and wage incentives
| MenciusChineseSun Tzu
| Recognized need for systems and standardsPrinciple of specialization recognizedRecognized need for planning, directing, and organizing. Sun Tzu’s Art of War recognizes the need for heirarchical organization communications, and staff planning
| Developed the work ethics. Began scientific method for problem solving.
| Enunciation of universality of managementRecognized management as a separate art.Records the first know description of the advantages of the division of labor when he describes an ancient Greek shoe factory.Recognized need for human relations. Use of motion stud, lay out, and materials handling
| In “The Politics” asserts that the specific nature of executive powers and functions cannot be the same for all states(organizations), but must reflect their speicific cultural development
| Scientific method applied. Use of work methods and tempo.Pdrinciple of specialiazation enunciated.
| Alexander the Great
| Use of staff
| Developed a factory system for manufacturing armaments, pottery, and textiles; built roads for distribution; organized labor; formed guilds; employed an authoritarian organizational structure based of function
| Use of job descriptions.
| Use of job specifications.
| Jesus Christ
| Unity of command. Golden rule. Human relations.
| Delegation of Authority
| Roman Catholic
| Decentralized hierarchical structure with centralized strategic control and policies.
| Abu Yusof
| An important pioneering Muslim scholar, explores the admionistration of essential Islamic government functions, including public financial policy, taxation, and criminal justice, in Kitab al Kharaj The Book of Taxes.
| Listed traits of leaders
| (The Government Rules) , by al Mawardi, examines Islamic constitution law, theoretical and practical aspects of Muslim political thought of behavior; and the behavior of politicians and administrators in Islamic states.
| 1093 - 1100
| Listed traits of a manager. Emphasizes the role of Islamic creed and teachings for the improvement of administrative and bureaucratic organizations in Muslim states, particularly the qualifications, and duties of rulers, m inisters, and secretatries in Iya ‘Ulum ad-Din (The Revival of the Religious Sciences.) and Nasihat al-Muluk (Counsel for Kngs).
| Established legal framework for trade and commerce
| (The Principle of...
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