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Tell Me About Blood

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Tell Me About Blood
Christina Gordon
ITT Technical Institute
AP2630
Dr. David Chase
September 23, 2014
A lower than normal hematocrit or anemia means that the percentage of red blood cells is below the lower limits of normal. It could be as a result of internal bleeding, nutritional problem or over hydration. When there is a bacterial infection, the hematocrit is raised. Lymphocytes are types of white blood cells. They are the body’s primary immune defense and move through the lymph in response to antigens and pathogens. T-cells originate in the bone marrow and migrate to the thymus to mature; B-cells also originate in the bone marrow and migrate to the lymph tissues to mature. Erythropoiesis is the production of red blood cells. This process begins with myeloid cells that differentiate into myeloblasts (an immature white blood cell of the bone marrow) or proerythrocytes (an immature red blood cell). There are several factors which influence and regulate erythropoiesis:
Erythropoietin- (EPO) a hormone secreted by the kidneys which stimulates the bone marrow to increase differentiation of proerythrocytes and thus increase erythrocyte production.
Intrinsic factor- or erythrocyte-maturing factor, which the stomach secretes to facilitate erythrocyte maturation.
Vitamin B12- also called the extrinsic factor, which interacts with the intrinsic factor.
Iron- an essential component of hemoglobin (the protein complex within erythrocytes that binds with oxygen)
A person with type O blood has no antigens so that person is a universal donor and their blood can be given to anyone without triggering their immune system.
There are five main types of white blood cells. The WBC with a round nucleus surrounded by a blue halo of cytoplasm with no visible granules is a lymphocyte. It is a combatant in immune responses. The WBC which contains dense blue-purple granules that hide the nucleus is a basophil. It intensifies inflammatory reaction and is involved in hypersensitivity reactions. The WBC that has a U-shaped nucleus and a bluish, foamy cytoplasm with no visible granules is a monocyte. They engage in phagocytosis (engulfing) and cell debris clean up. WBC that contains small, pale lilac granules and a four-lobed nucleus is a neutrophil. They are also active in phagocytosis. And the WBC with red-orange granules and two-lobed nucleus is an eosinphil. It releases enzymes that combat effects of histamine and other mediators of inflammation. A person who has been infected with a parasitic disease would have a higher level of leukocytes (white blood cells) because the parasites trigger an immune response in the body. Leukocytes are then produced in large amounts as a normal protective response. They secrete antibodies to kill any infected cells in the body. The WBCs responsible for immune response against pathogens are lymphocytes. They function to attack and destroy infected cells or self cells that have become defective.
Prothrombinase converts prothrombin into active thrombin which helps platelet aggregation. This is where thrombin converts fibrinogen into fibrin which interlaces with collagen to form a clot. Extrinsic coagulation occurs when there is a breach in a blood vessel and blood comes in contact with tissue factor. Intrinsic coagulation occurs without a breach when blood comes in contact with a foreign substance in the blood.
Reference
Facts on File, I. (2007) The Facts on File Encyclopedia of Health Medicine. New York, NY: Facts on File
Blood Types. (n.d). Retrieved from http:/www.healthline.com

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