Technology and Communication
Pages: 20 (4922 words) /
Published: Jan 31st, 2010
ICT tools can be used to find, explore, analyze, exchange and present information responsibly and without discrimination. ICT can be employed to give users quick access to ideas and experiences from a wide range of people, communities and cultures.
==Types of communication==
Prof. Albert Mehrabian (UCLA, 1967)http://www.presentationmagazine.com/the-mehrabian-myth-898.htm identified three major parts that convey meaning in human face to face communication: body language, voice tonality, and words. He conducted research to determine how people make meaning when a speaker says one thing but means another. If the speaker is sending a mixed message the listener will rely on the following cues to determine true meaning:Mehrabian and Ferris (1967). "Inference of Attitude from Nonverbal Communication in Two Channels". In: ' 'The Journal of Counseling Psychology ' ' Vol.31, 1967, pp.248-52.
* 55% of impact is determined by body language—postures, gestures, and eye contact,
* 38% by the tone of voice, and
* 7% by the content or the words spoken.
Mehrabian says this only applies in situations where the speaker is talking about feelings or attitudes.
Although the exact percentage of influence may differ due to variables such as the perceptions or biases of the listener and the speaker, communication as a whole is meant to convey meaning and thus, in some cases, can be universal. A system of signals, such as voice sounds, intonations or pitch, gestures or [[writing|written]] symbols can communicate thoughts or feelings. If a language employs communicating with signals, voice, sounds, gestures, or
References: Bakhtin, M. (1986). Speech Genres and Other Late Essays. University of Austin Press, Austin, USA. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind. Ballantine, New York, USA. Boshier, R. (1990). Socio-psychological Factors in Electronic Networking. International Journal of Lifelong Education 9 (1), pp. 49-64. Collier, K. G. (1985). Teaching Methods in Higher Education: The Changing Scene, with Special Reference to Small Group Work. Higher-Education-Research-and-Development 4 (1), pp. 3-27. Edmonds, S. (1998). Portia in Cyberspace: Asking the Right Question/s. Unpublished Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education Annual Conference, Adelaide, Australia. Hiltz, S. R. (1986). Learning in a Computerized Classroom. Computerized Conferencing and Communication Centre, Newark, USA. Kayne, T. (1987). Introducing Computer-Mediated Communication into a Distance Education System. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication 16 (2), pp. 153-166. Laurillard, D. (1988). Computers and the Emancipation of Students: Giving Control Back to the Learner. in Improving Learning: New Perspectives. P. Ramsden (Ed.). Kogan Page, London, UK, 215-233. Laurillard, D. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology. Routledge, London, UK. Laurillard, D. (1999). A Conversational Framework for Individual Learning Applied to the 'Learning Organisation ' and the 'Learning Society '. Systems Research and Behavioural Science 16, pp. 113-122. Levin, J. A., Kim, H. and Riel, M. M. (1990). Analyzing Instructional Interactions on Electronic Message Networks. in Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. L. Harasim (Ed.). Preager, New York, USA, 185-213. McCreary, E. (1990). Three Behavioural Models for Computer-Mediated Communication. in Online Education: Perspectives on a New Environment. L. Harasim (Ed.). Praeger, New York, USA, 117-130. Yazdani, M. and Bligh, D. (1997). Cooperative Learning in a Virtual University. in Proceedings, Second International Conference on Cognitive Technology. J. P. Marsh, C. L. Nehaniv and B. Goraska (Ed.). IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, USA, 251-255. Scherlis, 2000), suggesting large amount of social behaviour worth investigating. interaction and hence be task oriented and low in socio-emotional content (Rice & Love, 1987) awareness of others (Kiesler, Siegal & McGuire, 1984) and encourage antinormative, aggressive, uninhibited behaviour termed ‘flaming’ through a corresponding reduction in self-focus (Kiesler et al., 1984). Self-disclosure is the “act of revealing personal information to others” (Archer, 1980, p In one exception, Matheson and Zanna (1988) compared participants’ levels of self-awareness (using a four-item questionnaire) after they had discussed using public self-awareness than subjects communicating face-to-face” (p. 228). In line with this, Matheson (1992) reports that users find CMC a highly reflective experience. Weisband and Atwater (1999) found that CMC users over-estimate their contribution to discussions compared to FtF, suggesting that they might