Technology

Topics: Data compression, Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding Pages: 186 (52703 words) Published: October 24, 2014
INTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION UNION

CCITT
THE INTERNATIONAL
TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE
CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE

TERMINAL EQUIPMENT AND PROTOCOLS
FOR TELEMATIC SERVICES

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY –
DIGITAL COMPRESSION AND CODING
OF CONTINUOUS-TONE STILL IMAGES –
REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES

Recommendation T.81

T.81
(09/92)

Foreword
ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is the United Nations Specialized Agency in the field of telecommunications. The CCITT (the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee) is a permanent organ of the ITU. Some 166 member countries, 68 telecom operating entities, 163 scientific and industrial organizations and 39 international organizations participate in CCITT which is the body which sets world telecommunications standards (Recommendations).

The approval of Recommendations by the members of CCITT is covered by the procedure laid down in CCITT Resolution No. 2 (Melbourne, 1988). In addition, the Plenary Assembly of CCITT, which meets every four years, approves Recommendations submitted to it and establishes the study programme for the following period. In some areas of information technology, which fall within CCITT’s purview, the necessary standards are prepared on a collaborative basis with ISO and IEC. The text of CCITT Recommendation T.81 was approved on 18th September 1992. The identical text is also published as ISO/IEC International Standard 10918-1.

___________________

CCITT NOTE

In this Recommendation, the expression “Administration” is used for conciseness to indicate both a telecommunication administration and a recognized private operating agency.

 ITU 1993
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and microfilm, without permission in writing from the ITU.

Contents
Page
Introduction..............................................................................................................................................................

iii

1

Scope ............................................................................................................................................................

1

2

Normative references.....................................................................................................................................

1

3

Definitions, abbreviations and symbols .........................................................................................................

1

4

General .........................................................................................................................................................

12

5

Interchange format requirements ...................................................................................................................

23

6

Encoder requirements ...................................................................................................................................

23

7

Decoder requirements ...................................................................................................................................

23

Annex A – Mathematical definitions........................................................................................................................

24

Annex B – Compressed data formats........................................................................................................................

31

Annex C – Huffman table specification....................................................................................................................

50

Annex D – Arithmetic coding ..................................................................................................................................

54

Annex E – Encoder and decoder control procedures...


Bibliography: Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 947-954, 1991.
WALLACE (G.K.): The JPEG Still Picture Compression Standard, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 3144, 1991.
FEIG (E.): A Fast Scaled DCT Algorithm, in Image Processing Algorithms and Techniques, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1244, K.S.
Pennington and R. J. Moorhead II, Editors, pp. 2-13, Santa Clara, California, 1990.
IEEE ICASSP-91, pp. 2201-2204, Toronto, Canada, 1991.
VETTERLI (M.) and NUSSBAUMER (H.J.): Simple FFT and DCT Algorithms with Reduced Number of Operations,
Signal Processing, 1984.
CCITT Rec. T.81 (1992 E)
181
CHEN (W.H.) and PRATT (W.K.): Scene adaptive coder, IEEE Trans. on Communications, Vol. COM-32, pp. 225-232,
1984.
LOHSCHELLER (H.): Vision adapted progressive image transmission, Proceedings of EUSIPCO, Vol. 83, pp. 191-194,
1983.
PETERSON (H.A.) et al: Quantization of colour image components in the DCT domain, SPIE/IS&T 1991 Symposium on
Electronic Imaging Science and Technology, 1991.
LANGDON (G.): An Introduction to Arithmetic Coding, IBM J. Res. Develop., Vol. 28, pp. 135-149, 1984.
ONO (F.), YOSHIDA (M.), KIMURA (T.) and KINO (S.): Subtraction-type Arithmetic Coding with
Conditional Exchange, Annual Spring Conference of IECED, Japan, D-288, 1990.
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