Techniques and Tools of Evaluation
Tools and techniques are required to gather information. These should be valid, reliable and usable. Interpretation of gathered information needs to be given in numerical scores, grades as well as in qualitative terms. Judgement should be made not just on scholastic aspects but also on co-scholastic aspects which depend to a large extent on the learning ambience and learning culture of an institution. As far as interpretation is concerned, attainment can be mearsured in terms of three levels. First is with reference to the learner himself/herself and the current status of progress. The learning gaps need to be identified and marked upon. The second level is to identify the status of the learner with reference to his/her peer group. (Percentile Rank) The third level is with reference to the criteria. The criteria means the expected level of learning keeping in view the required skills. An evaluation tool is a means of appraisal scientifically designed to evaluate or measure what is required to be evaluated or measured Following factors need to be considered while using a tool: • • Balance Fairness • • Objectivity Validity • • Discrimination Speed • • Relevance Reliability
Specific Tools Anecdotal Record Rating Scale Aptitude Inventories Teacher Made and standarised Tests • These are used to measure in numerical terms the attainment of students in various school subjects.
• It is used to assess past behaviour of the students.
• It is used to classify opinions and judgements regarding situations, objects etc.
• They are used to measure the potential performance and special ability of students.
• They are used to assess the expression of the inner feelings of individuals through questionnaires etc.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Techniques of Evaluation consist of test and other items for measuring growth in particular outcomes of learning. Tools are the instruments used for