Effective teaching is based on principles of learning which have been discussed in some detail in Chapter 1. The learning process is not easily separated into a definite number of steps. Sometimes, learning occurs almost instantaneously, and other times it is acquired only through long, patient study and diligent practice. The teaching process, on the other hand, can be divided into steps. Although there is disagreement as to the number of steps, examination of the various lists of steps in the teaching process reveals that different authors are saying essentially the same thing: the teaching of new material can be reduced to preparation, presentation, application, and review and evaluation. Discussions in this handbook focus on these four basic steps.
For each lesson or instructional period, the instructor must prepare a lesson plan. Traditionally, this plan includes a statement of lesson objectives, the procedures and facilities to be used during the lesson, the specific goals to be attained, and the means to be used for review and evaluation. The lesson plan should also include home study or other special preparation to be done by the student. The instructor should make certain that all necessary supplies, materials, and equipment needed for the lesson are readily available and that the equipment is operating properly. Preparation of the lesson plan may be accomplished after reference to the syllabus or practical test standards (PTS), or it may be in pre-printed form as prepared by a publisher of training materials. These documents will list general objectives that are to be accomplished. Objectives are needed to bring the unit of instruction into focus. The instructor can organize the overall instructional plan by writing down the objectives and making certain that they flow in a logical sequence from beginning to end. The objectives allow the instructor to structure the training and permit the student to clearly see what is required along the way. It also allows persons outside the process to see and evaluate what is supposed to take place. Performanced-Based Objectives
One good way to write lesson plans is to begin by formulating performance-based objectives. The instructor uses the objectives as listed in the syllabus or the appropriate PTS as the beginning point for establishing performance-based objectives. These objectives are very helpful in delineating exactly what needs to be done and how it will be done during each lesson. Once the performance-based objectives are written, most of the work of writing a final lesson plan is completed. Chapter 10 discusses lesson plans in depth and provides examples of a variety of acceptable formats. Performance-based objectives are used to set measurable, reasonable standards that describe the desired performance of the student. This usually involves the term behavioral objective, although it may be referred to as a performance, instructional, or educational objective. All refer to the same thing, the behavior of the student. These objectives provide a way of stating what performance level is desired of a student before the student is allowed to progress to the next stage of instruction. Again, objectives must be clear, measurable, and repeatable. In other words, they must mean the same thing to any knowledgeable reader. The objectives must be written. If they are not written, they become subject to the fallibility of recall, interpretation, or loss of specificity with time. Performance-based objectives consist of three parts: description of the skill or behavior, conditions, and criteria. Each part is required and must be stated in a way that will leave every reader with the same picture of the objective, how it will be performed, and to what level of performance.
| Description of the Skill or Behavior
The description of the skill or behavior explains the desired outcome of the instruction. It actually is a learned capability, which may be defined...
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