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Teaching Physical Education in Nepals' Public Schools

By sharmaprakash Feb 04, 2013 11130 Words
CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION

1.1Background of the Study

Education, in simple words, is the process of development of personality to its maximum potentials. In a narrow sense, education is acquisition of knowledge and development of abilities and skills. But in a wider sense, education includes all aspects and elements of personality. Those aspects and elements of personality development is the ultimate aim of education. Education from social and political aspects is a means of imparting knowledge, abilities, skills, etc by one generation to the next. It is through education that human society has developed to the present level of political, cultural and economical advancement.

As an integral part of the educational process, physical education has its own aims. One can easily see that physical education with its emphasis on building a physically, emotionally, mentally and socially fit citizens, definitely plays an important role in modern day education. The mind and body represent a unity in man. One gives strength to other, one support the others and both functions harmoniously in the educated and whole person.

The term "physical education" takes on a new meaning after a consideration of the word "education." The word "physical" refers to the body. It is often used in reference to various bodily characteristics such as physical strength, physical development, physical prowess, physical health, and physical appearance. It refers to the body as contrasted to the mind. Therefore, when add the word "education" to the word "physical" and use the combined word "physical education" we are referring to the process of education which goes on when we are concerned with activities which develop and maintain the human body. When an individual is playing a game, swimming, marching, working out on the parallel bars or performing in any one gamut of physical education activities which aid in the development and maintenance of his body, education is taking place at the same time. About the physical education, Bucher (2008) stated that:

Physical education is a very important part of the educational process.
It is not a "frill or an ornament" which has been tacked on to the
school program as means of keeping children busy. It is, instead, a
vital part of education. Through a well directed physical education
program, children develop skills for worthy use of leisure time, engage
with activities which are conducive to healthful living, develop
socially, and contribute to their physical and mental health. (p. 34)

It is well known fact that physical education is the education system based on practical activities. It means physical education gives education or makes one skillful and genius by using physical activities. To give education through activities is an old and famous system in the field of education. (Baruwal, 2008 as cited in Sharma Prakash,2012)

Physical education is an integral part of general education process. It plays significant role to develop the wholesome personality of the students. It is always directed toward producing desirable change in the total behaviour of an individual. Physical education runs its programs through the medium of physical activities and sports. Physical education plays inevitable role to prepare well mannered, dutiful, disciplined, civilized and well cultured individual because physical education is such a subject which provides the basis for sound health of the individual and helps to maintain physical, mental, social and emotional development of an individual. Physical education not only develops the capacity of an individual to adjust with different environment but also teach the lesson to lead the society toward positive way. An individual possesses physical, mental, emotional and sound health develops the feeling or co-ordination becomes capable of self adjusting which contribute to the necessities for the production of healthy men power that a requirement of the nation.

Physical education consists of different elements along with. Games and sports are major components of physical education. Sport is a worldwide popular activity nowadays. Sports activities are now received as an important part of daily life everywhere. There are no such countries which are not adopting the sports. Sports activities help individuals of any age group or profession to keep their health in good condition. It also helps to control high blood pressure, heart diseases, neurological problems, etc. Physical education fulfills its aim through the medium of mainly sports and games. A number of objectives of physical education are there but one of the important objectives of these subjects is the physical development of an individual. In this sense physical education refers to the process of education that is related to the physical activities and sports with the aim of total personality development of the individuals. Physical activities and sports are only the medium which play crucial role to achieve the objective of physical education. The activities which were related to the earning of food and self defense have also been developed as sports. The activities which were concerned with the certain caste or group of people turned into traditional sports.

International sports have entered to our nation by the students and solders that had gone to foreign land to study and/or serve as military. It is said that they brought the international sports to Nepal together with them when they backed to Nepal. The game like football and cricket entered to Nepal in 1920 AD. Development of sports and games during the Rana's period was not satisfactory though the game like athletic and volleyball entered to Nepal in 1932 but these games were only limited to certain groups of family like Rana and their relatives.

In the context of physical education, in 2013 BS there was only one college where physical education was taught as compulsory and formal subject. It was college of education. After that in 2028 BS the government tried to run the same curriculum all over the country. In that curriculum the physical education was included in faculty of education for teachers. After that it started physical education program in proficiency certificate and bachelor level within the main stream of education. According to the curriculum of 2048 BS, health and physical education is kept as compulsory subject for class 1 to 8 as optional subject for class 9 and 10. Similarly it has been taught in higher secondary level, bachelor level and master level within the main stream of education. Teachers are the key letting the students entering to the educational world. Teachers have the same role in the field of physical education too. Teachers should have some special qualities to perform their responsibilities perfectly. They should have achieved some training regarding the teaching learning activities, teaching method, child psychology, pedagogy, etc. It is said that only the well trained teacher can perform well even in the unfavorable circumstances. Thus it is an important fact that they should be committed and devoted to their responsibilities so that others also can follow them as the model. Some personal, social and vocational qualities must bear by the teachers which make them a true teacher in the real sense. The schools providing the students' education should help the students to cultivate good behaviour and capacity to cope with the struggle may arise in the life. The teachers are performing many qualities in society such as a leader, a guide to various social programs, a model for leading society, and good and dependable person to deal with the burning issues of the society.

1.2Statement of the Problem

School education is the foundation for the national education system. If a nation has good school education system the nation will certainly be benefited by those students in the future. Like an industry, education system also has the input, process and the product in chain. There must be harmonious relationship among all the components of the educational industry. Both teachers and the students are the input for educational industries. To have the best product offcourse the input must be good.

Teachers are such of input for the educational industries that the future of students is there on their hands. To ensure the betterment of the students' future the teacher must possess the specific qualities like personal, social and professional qualities. As physical education is an compulsory subject of lower secondary level of our school educational system, physical education teachers are assigned there to teach physical education. Physical education teachers should have some special qualities regarding games and sports too together with other general qualities. The knowledge, practice and attitude of the teachers about the physical education should be studied to find out the real condition of our physical education's teachers. Whether the teachers of physical education are competent to their profession or not, is the main quire to find out. Thus the present problem has been stated as "Competency need assessment of physical education teachers at lower secondary level in Lalitpur district."

1.3Objectives of the Study

The prime objective of this study was to assess the competency of the physical education teachers from the lower secondary level. Specific objectives of this study were as follows: 1.3.1To find out the academic qualification of the physical education teachers from the lower secondary level of Lalitpur district.

1.3.2To find out the competency of the concerned trained and untrained teachers regarding teaching physical education. 1.3.3To explore the problems of teaching method and materials used to teach physical education.

1.4Significance of the Study

The major significant of this proposed study were as mention hereunder: 1.4.1The study would provide an important base for the educational planners, policy makers, curriculum designers, administrators from the same field etc. 1.4.2The study would be beneficial to physical education teachers under consideration to evaluate themselves. 1.4.3The result of the study would be as reference to the research scholars and other personnel to pursue their further study in the same field. 1.4.4As the study was going to explore the problem of teaching physical education, the results would be helpful to minimize the problems regarding the same field.

1.5Delimitation of the Study
The study was delimited in the following aspects:
1.5.1The study was delimited only within the Lalitpur district. 1.5.2Only the physical education teachers from lower secondary level were considered as the respondents of this study.
1.5.3Government aided public schools were included within this study.

1.6Definition of the Terms Used

Physical Education:
Physical education, an integral part of general education process, is a field of endeavor which has as its aim the development of physically, mentally, emotionally and socially fit citizens through the medium of physical activities which have been selected with a view to realizing these outcomes (Bucher, 2008).

Sports:
A sport is an event where the repetitions of movement are performed such as swimming, running, weight lifting, etc.

Games:
Games are of competitive nature in which major activities involving skills, tactics, change of movements, athletes process on the part of two or more people who play according to the set of rules e.g. Football, volleyball, basketball, etc. (Mathews, 1978)

Assessment:
A fact finding activity which describes conditions that exist at particular time.

Competency:
Ability to apply the essential principles and techniques of particular subject matters to practical situation.

Competency needs:
Abilities and status of knowledge, skills and attitude which are lacking but may be obtained and satisfied through teaching experience.

Curriculum:
Curriculum includes all the learner's experience in or outside the school that are included in a program which has been devised to help him/her develop mentally, physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually and morally.

Knowledge:
In this study, knowledge refers to understanding concept and principles of physical education.

CHAPTER-II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

In this chapter, an attempt has been made to get the knowledge of studies which are more or less related to this present study. The review of research reports more or less related to the present study that researcher could gather are presented in this chapter in order to provide the background material to evaluate the significance of this study as well as to correlate its findings.

Jha, (1982) conducted a research entitled "Prospect of Health and Physical education at secondary school level of Shiraha district". He found that for efficiency and effective HPE teaching, adequate trained teachers were needed due to the lack of provision made for a permanent post of a HPE teacher at school level.

Maharjan, (1990) shows that school teachers were not adequately competent in their subject matter related to population education teaching techniques were unknown and little known to school teachers in HPE teachers has positive attitude toward the importance of population education. They knew the importance of family planning measures, but they had little knowledge on the different permanent measures population education found a new area for teachers. So, they were expected to be groomed in subject matter trained in pedagogies and informed the sources of knowledge on it.

Devkota, (1996) in his study states that the difference of average knowledge scores between the teachers of government funded public schools and private school was not significant. Knowledge attitude and skills of trained teachers was significantly better than untrained teachers. None of the teachers used or studied teaching unit. Only 50% teachers clarified about the objectives of physical education to the students at the starting of the lesson.

Neupane, (1998) showed that all the respondents were aware to the need of school health program. Accordingly, scope, importance, meaning and objectives of school health program were known to the respondents ranking as 85.7 percent, 76 percent, and 61.9 percent respectively.

Dhar (1999) in his findings suggested that in the context of India, a good teacher may be the one who is liked and loved by the children, appreciated by the community and endeared by the peers and is aware of the impact of the knowledge explosion, population explosion and explosion of the rising expectation from education. He further added that a good teacher is willing to renew his/her approach, methodology and techniques in consonance with the changing times and is confident, willing and skilled to achieve professional upgradation, particularly through self guided learning. According to him a good teacher has the capacity, as a socializing agent, to interact with all those who could help enhance institutional efficiency and contribute to the growth, relevance and utility of education.

Maharjan and Baruwal, (1999) found that majority of teachers teaching physical education in lower secondary level did not have education background. Theoretical and practical knowledge on different aspects of physical education has been found poor. Teachers have been found very poor in pedagogical aspect as well.

Howet et.al. (2000) ascertain competency needs required for personal working in health promotion. The participants were required to rate each items on a scale ranging from 1-5 according to their perception of its importance to health promotion as practice by their profession. The competencies were grouped into the following categories: need assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, communication and knowledge.

Bhandari, (2001) shows that knowledge, attitude and practice of the teacher was not proportionally equall in competency areas. Knowledge scores of the teacher was comparatively low that attitude and practice scores.

Bista, (2002) conducted a research entitled "Are trained teachers different from untrained teachers? A comparative study of classroom." He found that in secondary level , SEDU trained teachers found themselves more skilled in performing a number of teaching competencies.

Awa, (2002) in his work "Continuous assessment system in Nepal( A glimpse of its piloting)", found that the qualitative improvement and the qualitative growth are not balanced in learner's achievement at primary education. Likewise, the mean score of Grade iii students as 50.37 percent on social studies.

The reviewed literatures are more or less similar to the study. From those literatures, the researchers had found that qualification of the teachers and training of the teachers are two major independent variables for developing teaching competency. The reviewed literatures have helped to the researcher to select the method of study for this study.

CHAPTER-III
METHODOLOGY

3.1Research Design

The research design for this study was descriptive and based on primary data and information. Questionnaire was used as the main tool for data collection. The procedure for data analysis was more or less descriptive and simple statistical measures were used.

3.2Population/Sources of Data

All the physical education teachers of lower secondary level from Lalitpur district was the population of this study. Teachers from government funded public schools were considered as the population. Primary data were collected by applying the questionnaire to the respondents.

3.3Sampling procedure

The study area was divided into 3 regions according to the electoral constituencies for the purpose of equal representation of each region of the distrct. The schools were selected by means of simple random sampling method. Only the public schools were selected equally. Finally one physical education teacher was taken as research subjects from randomly selected schools. In total 60 schools were randomly selected from 212 schools on the basis of 20 schools from each region.

3.4Tools of Data Collection

There are various tools for the data collection. Among them questionnaire was developed as the main tool of data collection for this study. Aside from the questionnaire the class observation form was developed as another tool to find out the teaching methodology and the problems regarding same. By applying the questionnaire and observation sheet required data were gathered.

3.5Validation of the Tools

To validate the developed questionnaire, it was trial tested first to those teachers from physical education who were not there as the real respondents for this study. Then the questionnaire was finalized on the basis of feedback received from the trial test and suggestion made by the supervisor.

3.6Data Collection Procedure

The study was primarily based on primary data. The main focus was given to collect quantitative data by administering questionnaire. At first the researcher had visited to the schools and mentioned the purpose of his visit. Then he asked the favor of respondents to fill the questionnaire in. At the same time the researcher observe the class of physical education with the help of developed observation form.

3.7Method of Data Analysis and Interpretation

After collecting the data, the data were analyzed and interpreted as per the objectives determined prior to the study. Simple statistical measures like percentage, average were used to analyze the data. Tables and figures have been used to make the obtained data and presentation more clear.

CHAPTER-IV
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

All the information collected from the research site have been tabulated, analysed and interpreted in this chapter. The researcher had collected the information/data by using questionnaire and observation form. The information has been used to explore the competency of physical education teachers. The analysis has been made under following sub heading:

4.1Educational Qualification of the Teachers

The first part of the questionnaire was intended to find out the personal information of the teachers who have been teaching the physical education in lower secondary level. Among the personal information, educational qualification was one. Educational qualification is the first requirements of a person to be a teacher. Without having right educational qualification, no one can carry on the job of being a teacher. Aside from that the right educational stream must be considered while assigning the teacher. According to the educational policy of our nation, the minimum required qualification to become a lower secondary education teacher is intermediate in education. The researcher was keen on to find out the educational qualification of the teachers whether they have only minimum qualification or above. The findings of the same are given hereunder:

Table No.1
Educational Qualification of the Teachers
S.N.Educational QualificationNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Intermediate Degree1525.00
2.Bachelor Degree3558.33
3.Master's Degree1016.67
Total60100

Table no.1 informs that among 60 respondents, 15 were having the intermediate degree in different stream of the study. Majority of the respondents (58.33 percent) were having bachelor degree in various study subjects. The teachers who were having master's degree were in low percent. Intermediate degree is the minimum required qualification for the teacher of lower secondary level. Table no.1 clearly indicates that 45 teachers were having the qualification which was more than the minimum requirement. There is positive relationship between academic level and the knowledge of the teachers. Those teachers who are having high qualification can teach the subject matter better than the others. If the teacher is having his/her degree from the same study discipline he/she can deliver the subject matter better than those teachers who are having their degree from non related subjects. The specialized subject of a teacher determined his subject to teach. Following sub heading is going to deal with the specialized subject of the teachers.

4.2Specialized Subject of the Teachers

An attempt has been made to find out the status of specialized subjects of the respondents. Academic qualification of the teachers play vital role to enhance the teaching learning activities. If a teacher is from the same subject it will be effective to run the class of any subject. A teacher from different discipline cannot run the class effectively than other discipline as the teacher from the same discipline. The findings regarding the specialized subjects of the respondents have been given hereunder: Table No.2

Specialized Subject of the Teachers
S.N.Specialized SubjectsNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.HPE in education1220.00
2.Population in education58.33
3.Science1525.00
4.Management 1016.67
5.English in education58.33
6.Math in education813.34
7.Nepali in education58.33
Total60100
Table No.2 indicates that 20% of the teachers from research site were found having specialized in HPE. Similarly, 25% of the teachers who were teaching physical education were from the faculty of science. The second majority of the teachers were from the faculty of management whose percentage is 16.67. Teachers having specialization from different subject of education stream were also found there in the research site as the teacher of physical education. Teaching physical education from the teacher of different subject rather than the physical education is not the supportive deeds to the enhancement of physical education. We cannot assure the goals of physical education to be achieved by this sort of teaching scenario. The teachers who has excellent command of science content may not have the basic ideas of the physical education and sports. So, this trend of our government school should be removed and the teachers from the same subject background must be employed.

4.3Training Obtained by the teachers

Training is one of the major aspects of promoting any service which gives efficiency to a person in his/her profession like teachers, professors, administrators, accountants etc. of the educational institutions. Educational and sports training play a vital role in teaching physical education. Only the trained teacher can deliver the subject matter to the students effectively. The way of teaching between trained and non trained teachers have been found completely different. Training is the systematic and well organized event of some discipline to be practice and/or conveyed to the target population in an effective way. Degree from the education faculty is considered as the training for the teacher in our nation. those person who want to be a teacher and not having the degree from the education faculty need to take the one year bachelor degree from the education faculty. Aside from this, ten month teacher training program is there in our nation to provide those teachers who are just having the intermediate degree from non education faculty. The researcher was keen on to find out the training level of the teachers of physical education from the research site. Though teachers of physical education have got the extra training of various games and sports or not was another curiosity of the researcher. The findings of the same are given below: Table No.3

Training Obtained by the teachers
S.N.Obtained TrainingDurationNo. of teachersRemarks
1.10 month training provided by D.E.O.10 months9Teachers completed their degree from
education faculty
are not included here.
2.One year B.Ed.one year12
3.Sports teacher training3 months2
4.Coach training(football)2 weeks2
Total25

Table no. 3 shows that out of 60 teachers, only 25 teachers were there who have got various training on the field of teaching learning who were not having their degree from the education faculty. Among those 25 teachers, 9 teachers were there who were having the training of ten months, 12 were having one year bachelor from education faculty and the rest four were getting the training related with sports and games. Training program enhance the performance of the teacher. Training makes the teachers more competent and confidence on their subject matter. The teachers who are well trained can conduct the physical education class perfectly. Above data revealed that the teachers of physical education were there getting some general training to be the teacher but not obtaining the training related to the field of games and sports.

4.4Performance of the Teachers on the basis of teaching Experience Teachers' performance can be assessed by various components. Among those components, teaching experience is one of them. Experience makes a teacher very confident and strong to face the difficulties in teaching learning process. The terms of "Experience" is very much important in all fields including teaching field and teaching process. If the teachers are experienced, their teaching style, spoken, writing and presenting skills will be good than non- experienced one. Experienced teachers have various effective skills such as motivation, good communication, manage the time, spontaneous teaching and so on. Therefore teaching experience plays a vital role in teaching process from which we can evaluate that the teacher is competent on his/her field or not. The following table shows the teaching experience of teachers of physical education in selected lower secondary schools. . The student can gain more knowledge form the experienced teacher than non-experienced. Similarly, the more experienced teacher can give best ideas about subject matter rather than non experienced or least experienced teacher. Table No.4

Teaching experience of the Teachers
S.N.Experienced yearsNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.1-5 years1220.00
2.6-10 years2135.00
3.11-15 years1220.00
4.16-20 years 915.00
5.21 years above610.00
Total60100

Table no 4 indicates that the number of teachers who are well experienced less in number. The teachers who have the experience of more than 21 years were only 10 percent. The highest number of the teachers was having the teaching experience of the years of 6 to 10 years, their percentage was 35. Similarly 20 percent of the teachers were having the experience of 11 to 15 years and 1to 5 years too. The experience makes the teacher to get new idea to solve the upcoming problem in their classess. The new teachers can get lots of supportive deeds from the experienced teachers. So, it can be said that the experienced teachers are more competent than the new comers.

4.5Performance of the Teachers in relation with teaching Method Teaching methods are considered as special techniques of a teacher to present his lesson to the students. It is like a trick, which is known by the musician to motivate the spectators towards his show. So, it has occupied an important role in the teaching learning activities. Even a good teaching method cannot achieve the determined goal. So the effective teaching methods should be applied by a good teacher to impart knowledge to his students. Different teaching methods should be applied according to nature and demand of course content, no. of students, structure and organization of the class, etc. In the field of physical education the content is divided into two parts i.e. theoretical and practical. In theoretical class the discussion and question answer method is more effective than lecture method according to educational principle. In this method the students will fully participate in their learning activities. The practical class demands more qualified instructor, only qualified and skillful instructor can provide effective way to their learner in related subject like physical education and sports. Teaching learning method should be used differently according to the nature of class and contents like practical and theoretical. In practical class the demonstration, presentation and participatory methods are useful to learn physical activity and sports. The researcher had tried to find out the competency of the teachers by observing their both theory and practical classes. The findings regarding the appropriateness of teaching methods, used by the physical education teachers in the research site has been given below:

Table No.5
Teaching methods applied by the teachers
S.N.Suited with the contentNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent46.66
2.Good2541.67
3.Satisfactory1525.00
4.Poor 1016.67
5.Very poor610.00
Total60100

According to table no. 5 the teachers who were using the teaching method to impart the knowledge were only 6.66%. 41.67 percent teachers' teaching methods were good whereas the teaching methods of 25 percent teachers were only satisfactory. Similarly 16.67 percent teachers were poor to use the relevant teaching methods. The rest 10 percent teachers were very poor in regards with the use of proper teaching method. It is very difficult to achieve the pre determined goal without using of proper teaching method. The researcher had also found that some of the teachers were using only the lecture method instead of other fruitful methods of teaching. So, the method of teaching using by teachers should be revised for the betterment of teaching learning activities.

4.6Performance of the Teachers in relation with teaching Material

Teaching materials is the most important part of good teaching process. If the teachers use materials, teaching process will become more effective and successful. There are various types of teaching materials in our field, which help to gain more knowledge and modify the student’s behaviors. Although the audio/visual material is effective in teaching, no teachers had been using those materials according to the students. Printed Material is accessible and easily available so that most of the teachers love to use those materials. Whatever the materials used by the teachers should be relevant to the contents. The material used by the teachers should support to the teachers to get the predetermined objectives of the lesson. The researcher had tried to find out whether the materials used by the teachers were suited to the content or not. The findings of the same have been given in the following table:

Table No.6
Teaching materials used by the teachers
S.N.Suited with the contentNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent23.33
2.Good813.33
3.Satisfactory3558.33
4.Poor 1016.67
5.Very poor58.34
Total60100

Table no.6 revealed that the materials used by the teachers of 3.33 percent were excellent in regards with the content they taught. 13.33 percent teachers were found using good material for their classes. Similarly majority of the teachers i.e. 58.33% were using that kind of teaching material which were only in satisfactory level. 16.67 percent teachers were poor regarding the use of teaching material whereas the rest 8.34 percent teachers were very poor about the using of teaching material in their classes.

If a teacher cannot decide which teaching material can support to get the objectives of his/her lesson he/she will not be able to impart the desired learning outcomes of the lesson. Teaching materials are essential part of daily classes. It is not needed to use the expensive and the imported materials for each and every class. We can choose and use the locally available material too for the betterment of our teaching style. For this the teacher must have the idea of choosing teaching material.

4.7Performance of the Teachers in relation with Sharpness of Delivering Content

There are various qualities of a teacher. To be a good teacher a teacher has to possess different qualities like personal qualities, social qualities and professional qualities. If a teacher having excellent professional quality but not having the good personal quality he may not perform his/her duty well. Teacher is that person who can deliver the knowledge, skill or the good conduct what he/she has to his/her students in a perfect way. Without delivering the content to the students, no class will be meaningful. Even a teacher has lots of knowledge and degree of the related subject but not having the delivering skill, there will be no meaning of those degrees. Teacher is a facilitator to the students. If he/she does not have the better facilitating ideas, students will not be satisfied to that teacher and start to neglect the class. To make a class effective, a teacher can motivate the students towards the subject matter. If a teacher has good delivering skill, students will be motivated toward him. If he/she has not good content delivering skill, the class will not show the interest toward him/her. So, the effort of the teacher will go to vain. That’s why a teacher must have good content delivering skill. For the purpose of this study, the researcher had tried to find out the content delivering skill of the teachers. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder: Table No.7

Sharpness of Delivering Content
S.N.QualityNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent1016.66
2.Good2033.33
3.Satisfactory1830.00
4.Poor 813.33
5.Very poor46.68
Total60100

According to the table no. 7, only 16.67 percent teachers were found having excellent delivering skill. The researcher had found their classes running with great attention from students' side. Similarly, 33.33 percent of the teachers were having good delivering skill and 30 percent were having satisfactory skills. The rest were found having poor and very poor performance on the sharpness of delivering content. The researcher had noticed that due to the mother tongue spoken by the teachers from the research site, they were facing some problem with Nepalese language. Because of that too their skill of delivering had found very poor.

4.8Performance of the Teachers in relation with Evaluation Technique Evaluation is the main aspect of the all educational activities. It finds out the student capacity, attitude and knowledge in the subject matter. Therefore evaluation is very important part of physical education too. There are different means of evaluation i.e. formative, summative, diagnostic etc. formative evaluation plays vital role in observing the students' behaviour, knowledge, skill, etc. most of the teachers have the habit to use only the traditional method of evaluation. Aside from this teachers are using the exam as the only means of evaluation. Still we have that legacy that the exam and the evaluation are the same thing. The process of providing value of anything is called evaluation which gives quantitative and qualitative description. In systematic educational evaluation consist of formal assessment of the worth of educational phenomenon. Educational evaluation is the combination of students' evaluation, teacher evaluation curriculum evaluation & program evaluation. So the teacher’s evaluation is one of the parts of total educational evaluation. For the purpose of this study, the researcher had observed the class of physical education teachers to find out the evaluation technique used by the teachers to evaluate the students' progress. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder: Table No.8

Evaluation Technique
S.N.QualityNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent610.00
2.Good1830.00
3.Satisfactory2236.66
4.Poor 1016.66
5.Very poor46.68
Total60100

Table no.8 indicates that only 10 percent teachers were found using excellent technique of evaluation to evaluate the student's performance. Thirty percent of the teachers were found using good evaluation technique. The majority of the teachers (36.66) percent were found using satisfactory evaluation technique to evaluate the student's performance. The rest were found poor in regards with the use of evaluation technique.

4.9Performance of the Teachers in relation with Class Organization

When we talk about the teacher's performance, the issue of class organization rises. Class organization carries the different meaning on different classes. The class organization in science lab will be different from the class organization of physical education practical class. And class organization between the theory and practical class of physical education also differ from each other. Class organization is not only to arrange the available physical facilities in proper way but also to manage the students. Letting students to sit in a proper place, arranging the enough means of access for the teacher to move here and there to each and every student, etc fall under the class organization of the theoretical class. Talking about the practical class of physical education, a teacher should be aware about the available sports facilities and equipments for better and effective use. The most part of the class organization of physical education practical class is to arrange the students' location in such way that everyone can see the teacher's demonstration. By considering this fact the researcher had observed the practical and theory classes of the physical education teachers from the research site to find out the class organization competence of them. The findings of the same have been presented below:

Table No.9
Class Organization
S.N.QualityNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent46.67
2.Good1118.34
3.Satisfactory1626.66
4.Poor 1830
5.Very poor1118.33
Total60100

According to table no. 9, class organization capacity of the teachers from the research site is not so well. The table indicates that 18.33 percent of the teachers were very poor and 30.00 percent of the teachers were poor in regards with the class organization competence. Only 6.67 percent teachers were found having excellent competence of class organization whereas 18.34 percent of the teachers were found having good capacity of the same. The rest 26.66 percent teachers were found having satisfactory capability of class organization.

4.10Performance of the Teachers in relation with Class Control

As the researcher wanted to find out the competency of teachers in various aspects, he had tried to find out the capacity of class control too. Class control means not only to make the class silent but also getting the attention of the students towards the subject matter to get the determined objectives of the lesson. Most of the teachers still have that practice to control the class by means of autocratic way. What they want is only to make the student silent. Whether the students are paying attention toward the subject matter or not? This question should be answer first while controlling the class by the concerned teacher. To find out the answer of same question the researcher had observed the classes of the respondent teachers. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder:

Table No.10
Class Control
S.N.QualityNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent1220.00
2.Good2338.33
3.Satisfactory1525.00
4.Poor 610.00
5.Very poor46.67
Total60100

According to the table no.10, 20 percent of the teachers were found having excellent quality of class control. 38.33 percent of the teachers were found having good command on class control. Similarly, 25 percent of the teachers were found having satisfactory level of class control capacity. The table also indicates that 10 percent of the teachers were found having poor class control capacity whereas 6.67 percent of the teachers were having very poor class control capacity.

4.11Performance of the Teachers in relation with Students' Participation in Teaching Learning Activities

It is most needed aspect in teaching learning activities to ensure the participation of the students. Without the participation of the students the teaching will not be effective and sustainable. A teacher as a facilitator for the students has to facilitate the students to carry on the learning activities by themselves. Teacher should be there with them to guide towards the achievement of the determined goals. If a teacher has not this quality, his class will not be the modern class. In our context, still we have such teacher who only loves to deliver their lecture. Whether the students are achieving some lesson or not he/she does not consider. Teacher should encourage the students for learning by doing. Especially in physical education classes, the teacher must encourage the students to involve in practical activities. Without being involved in practical activities, students cannot develop the desired skill of the lesson. So, students' participation is one of the most required aspects of teaching learning activities. The researcher had tried to find out the capacity of the teachers for arranging the students' participation in their classes. The findings about the same topic have been given below:

Table No.11
Students' Participation in Teaching Learning Activities
S.N.Students' ParticipationNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent711.66
2.Good1626.67
3.Satisfactory2033.34
4.Poor 1016.67
5.Very poor711.66
Total60100

Table no. 11 revealed that only 11.66 percent of the teachers were having the excellent power to ensure the student's participation in teaching learning activities. Likewise, 26.67 percent were found having good competence on this topic. 33.34 percent of the teachers were found having only the satisfactory level of competence on this regards. 16.67 percent teachers were found having poor performance whereas the rest 11.66 percent of the teachers were having very poor performance regarding the same topic.

4.12Performance of the Teachers in relation with Lesson Plan In good teaching learning activities, lesson plan is the most important aspect because it is the backbone of the fulfillment the objectives of any curricular activities. The lesson plan gives the positive impact on teaching method and instructional materials. It helps to finish the course in appropriate time with getting the pre-determined goals. Moreover, lesson plan helps the teacher to select the teaching learning activities in the class. If a teacher enters to the class with lesson plan, he/she may not have to spent time to determine the objectives of the ongoing lesson. The lesson plan makes the teacher punctual too for the betterment of his/her own teaching skill. Lesson plan guides the teacher to choose the evaluation techniques too. So, lesson plan is an essential part of teaching learning process for the teacher to continue his/her teaching. That is why; the researcher had tried to find out the practice of teacher regarding the use of lesson plan. No teacher from the research site was found entering to their classes with written lesson plan. According to them, making lesson plan is boring job and they further added that while teaching, teacher should be prepared mentally about the lesson he/she going to teach, he/she should read the lesson at home but no need to bring lesson plan in class. 4.13Performance of the Teachers in relation with Commanding Power

A good teacher must have a good commanding power too. Especially in physical education class, without having good commanding power, a teacher cannot run the class. If a teacher has not a good commanding power, he/she cannot control the practical activities on the lab or ground. Without systematic drill, no skills can be developed and execute. Physical's practical classes cannot be conducted haphazardly. Systematic and scientifically approved drill and physical activities must be run in the classes of physical education. Without proper use of the available physical facilities, sports equipments and supplies, no student can master over the required skill to be execute. To use those facilities and instruments also, a good command should be presented to the students. Then only the students can get the proper way of utilizing the facilities. Otherwise the pre-determined goals will not be achieved. Moreover, if a teacher does not have good commanding power, accident may occur in the class. So, it is very essential to have a good commanding power with the teacher of physical education. The researcher had also made an attempt to find out the commanding power of the teachers by observing their classes for the purpose of this study. The findings regarding the same have been given in the following table: Table No.12

Teacher's commanding power
S.N.QualityNo. of Teachers Percentage
1.Excellent915.00
2.Good2440.00
3.Satisfactory1626.66
4.Poor 813.34
5.Very poor35.00
Total60100

According to table no. 12, 15 percent of the respondents were found having excellent commanding power whereas 40 percent of the respondents were found having good commanding power in both theoretical and practical classes. Similarly, 13.34 percent of the teachers were found having poor commanding power whereas 5 percent were very poor regarding the same topic. The rest 26.66 percent of the respondents were found having satisfactory commanding power over the classes.

4.14Teacher's knowledge on the Meaning of Physical Education

The word physical education is derived from two words, 'physical' and 'education'. The dictionary meaning of the word physical is 'relating to body', it may relate to one or many parts of the body. It may be physical strength, physical endurance, physical fitness, physical appearance or physical health. The word education means systematic instructions or training, or preparation for or some particular task. A combined meaning of these two words would be that systematic instructions or training which relate to physical activities or program of activities, necessary for development and maintenance of human body, development of physical powers, or cultivation of physical skill. A well directed programme of physical education leads to a healthful living, social efficiency, good physical health, and worthy use of leisure time. In modern context, the term physical education has assumed much broader and more meaningful application to our daily life. Physical education is the education of man 'in' and 'by' means of physical activity. It is education of physical through physical. Physical education is that education which starts with physical development and advances towards perfect development of human beings, the ultimate result being vigorous and strong body, acquisition of sound health mental alertness, and social and emotional balance. Such an individual may be able to interpret new situation effectively, in more meaningful and purposeful manner and can be said to be a "physically educated person."

A teacher must be familiar with the above mentioned broad meaning of physical education. So that only he can make the students to interpret the real meaning of physical education. By taking this point of view, the researcher had tried to find out the level of knowledge of the teachers about the meaning of the term physical education. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder:

Figure No.1
Knowledge on the Meaning of physical education

Figure no. 1 indicates that 86.66 percent of the teachers from the research site were familiar with the broad meaning of physical education. The rest 13.34 percent of the respondents were not familiar with the broad and real meaning of physical education. Being a physical education teacher, each and every teacher must have the knowledge of the real meaning of physical education. But the above figure has not supported this statement. So, the teachers who have not had the broad meaning of physical education should be instructed about the same.

4.15Teacher's knowledge about the Objectives of physical education

Objectives are the particular and precise means employed to realize an aim. Objectives are steps, advances, and realities in relation to the aim. They are considered worthwhile as they measured up to the standard of the aim. The objectives are something desirable, which seem possible of being attained, and through which the final goal is brought nearer to realization.

The objectives of physical education as contemplated by various physical educationists from time to time can be summarized as following: physical development objective
motor development objective
knowledge and understanding objective
social and emotional development objective

All the teacher of physical education should be familiar with aforesaid objectives of physical education. Without having the idea regarding the above mentioned objectives of physical education, no teacher can be a good teacher of physical education. Without the entire objectives of physical education, teacher will be unable to distinguish the objectives of various lessons to be taught to the students. Objectives are there to show the teacher about the direction to be taken to catch the aim. The journey without the idea of aim and objectives will be meaningless and the traveler cannot get his destination. The same thing will be happened in physical education classes too if the teacher has no idea and clear vision of the aim and objectives. So, the researcher had tried to find out the knowledge level of the teacher about the objectives of physical education. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder by means of following figure:

Figure No.2
Knowledge on the Objectives of physical education

According to figure no.2, the teachers who have the idea and knowledge of the objectives of physical education were 85 percent, and the rest 15 percent were found having no clear idea about the objectives of the physical education. So, it can be said that the teacher who do not have the knowledge of the objectives of the subject cannot be the teacher of same subject.

4.16Teacher's knowledge on Sports Psychology

Physical education has its various sub discipline like sports medicine, kinesiology, sports psychology, etc. as a teacher of physical education one should be familiar with the meaning of these sub discipline too. Sports psychology is that sub discipline of physical education in which the deal about the use of the principles of psychology in the field of sports is made. As a physical education teacher one must be well known about the desire, need, interest, etc. of the students. A teacher without having the idea of various learning principle cannot make the children to understand the content. Moreover, sports psychology is that branch of psychology which is intimately connected with human behavior on the play field, both under practice and competitive situations, with a view to bring about qualitative improvement in performance and maintain the same even during the stresses of competition. It is the study of human behavior in sports settings with an emphasis on the mental aspect of behavior. As a physical education teacher he/she sometimes need to deal about the sports setting. The knowledge of sports psychology helps the teacher to cope with up the problem regarding the same. So, the researcher had tried to find out the knowledge of the teachers regarding sports psychology. The findings about the same have been given below as following figure:

Figure No.3
Knowledge on Sports Psychology

According to figure no. 3, it is clear that only 20 teachers were found having the knowledge of sports psychology whereas the rest 40 teachers were found unknown about the meaning of sports psychology. A teacher without having the knowledge of sports is not suited to be a physical education teacher. So, the knowledge of sports training should be impart to those teachers who were found not having the knowledge regarding the same topic.

4.17Teacher's knowledge About the Football Game

Football is a world popular game and has been included in the curriculum of our lower secondary level too. So, it is needed to know the general rules and the playing format of the game by the teacher of physical education. Football is played between two teams of having 11 players at a time in each team. It is a time based game played up to 90 minutes with the time interval of 15 minutes after 45 minutes of kick off. Some questions about the general rules of the game were asked to the respondents to get their knowledge level regarding the game. The findings of the same have been given below:

Figure No.4
Knowledge on Football Game

Figure no. 4 indicates that only 25 teachers out of 60 were found having the knowledge of football game whereas the rest 35 teachers were found not having the proper knowledge of football game. by this fact, it can be said that the teachers from the research site are weak in the knowledge of the football game. Without the general rules of the game, how the teacher can conduct the game in the school? It is the question to be answered from the concerned person. The workshop or/and seminar should be started to impart the football knowledge to those teacher who do not have the knowledge of the game.

4.18Teacher's knowledge about the Volleyball Game

Volleyball is a team game played between two teams having the players of 6 numbers at a time. It has various rules and nature of playing. The nature of volleyball must be understood by not only the volleyball coach but also by the teacher of physical education. Volleyball has many characteristics which are unique unto it and the teacher must immerse himself in the nature of the games so that he/she may be better adapting to his/her teaching strategies. Some of the major nature/characteristics of volleyball game are as following: volleyball is a rebound sport:-

This implies there is no possession of the ball by the players with the exception of serving. most ball contact in volleyball is intermediate:-
There is no final contact therefore ball control is essential. Co-operation and teamwork are vital. Once the ball is put into play only the final attack counts. volleyball is noticeably imbalanced between offence and defense volleyball rules require player rotation

volleyball presents no time limit:-
Therefore, the game is always won by the victorious team. The last point must be scored. A large lead can easily be lost, thus the coach must train his team to actively win the game as opposes to waiting for the opponent to lose the game. Momentum is critical in volleyball and will quickly and easily shift from team. The aforesaid characteristics of volleyball should be understood by the teacher of physical education to teach and coach volleyball. By taking these points in consideration, the researcher had asked some questions about the volleyball to the respondents. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder:

Figure No.5
Knowledge on Volleyball Game

According to the figure no. 5, 47 out of 60 teachers were found having the general knowledge of volleyball game whereas the rest 13 teachers were found not having the general knowledge of volleyball game. From the above data it can be said that the teachers from the research site were ahead in volleyball knowledge in comparison with the knowledge of other game. it can be said that the teachers competence level of volleyball was found better in the research site.

4.19Teacher's knowledge about the Basketball Game

Basketball game is interesting, competitive and speed game. The game is known as team game so team spirit is very important, but individual skill and performance also very essential to win the game. Each team has 5 players at a time. The game is played in a court measuring 28m length and 15m breath and two poles in each end line having basket at 3.05m height from the playing surface line. The team who score more within the given time will be declared as the winner. The game basketball supports for good health and exercise for the body so it is famous among the young people. This game is also included in the curriculum of our lower secondary level. Teachers have not only to teach the rules of the game but also to coach and demonstrate the fundamental skills of the game. So, the teacher of physical education should have the general knowledge and fundamental skills of the game. That is why: the researcher had tried to find out the knowledge level of the respondents for this study by asking some questions about the game. The findings of the same have been presented hereunder as depicted by the following figure:

Figure No.6
Knowledge on Basketball Game

According to figure no. 6, only 20 teachers out of 60 were found having the knowledge of basketball game whereas the rest 40 teachers were found not having the proper knowledge of the game. The data shows that the teachers of physical education from the research site are weak in the knowledge of basketball. So, the required steps should be taken to overcome this scenario.

4.20Teacher's knowledge about the importance of Minor Games

Minor games are those games designed and developed for the junior kids to have fun and recreation. The objectives of the minor games are not only to give the fun and entertain the kids but also to lead the kids towards learning the basic skills of major games. So, minor games are very helpful to lead the kids toward playing of major game. The teachers with the knowledge of minor game can motivated the kids for his class. Minor games can also be used as warm up and cool down exercise. That is why it is essential to have the knowledge of the importance of minor games by the physical education teachers. The researcher had tried to find out the knowledge of the teachers toward the importance of minor games. The findings of the same have been given below:

Figure No.7
Knowledge on the importance of Minor Games

According to figure no. 7, 42 teachers out of 60 were found having the knowledge of importance of minor games to the kids whereas the rest 18 teachers were found not having the proper knowledge of the importance of minor games for the students.

4.21Teacher's knowledge about the Long Jump

Long jump is an event within athletics. As we know athletics are the mother activities for almost all the game, it is essential to practice from the age of lower secondary level. It is included in the curriculum of lower secondary level. So, the teacher should have the idea of various events of athletics. For this study purpose, the respondents were asked about the long jump event. The findings on the knowledge of long jump have been given below:

Figure No.8
Knowledge on Long Jump

According to figure no. 8, 47 teachers out of 60 were found having the knowledge of long jump and the rest 13 teachers were found not having the proper knowledge of long jump. From above data it is seen that the knowledge level of the teachers on long jump is good.

CHAPTER-V
SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1Summary

Health and physical education curriculum is one of the compulsory curriculums for the lower secondary education of our nation. It attempts to provide the knowledge, attitude and skills of the health and physical education to the students of lower secondary level. To provide the desired outcomes to the students the teacher of the same subject must be the competent one. Without the presence of competent teacher we cannot imagine about to achieve the determined goals of the subject. That is why the present researcher was interested to find out whether our secondary level's teachers of physical education are competent or not. The prime objective of this study was to assess the competency of physical education teachers from the lower secondary level in Lalitpur district.

To catch the aforesaid objective of this study, questionnaire and class observation form were used as the main tools for this study. All the lower secondary level's physical education teachers from lalitpur district were the population of this study. Among them 60 teachers were selected as the sample from the reliable sampling method for this study. the questionnaire were applied to all the sample respondents. And the theoretical and practical classes of the respondents were observed to collect the data for this study.

After the data collection, the data were tabulated, analysed and interpreted as per the demand of the pre-determined objectives in descriptive manner by using simple statistical method. The major findings of the study were that physical education is being taught by the teachers having specialization with other subject rather than physical education. Teachers' educational qualification was higher than the minimum requirement. Only the few teachers were found having the excellent competence over various areas of teaching. Most of the teachers were found not having the proper competence level upon different aspect of teaching learning activities like, evaluation technique, using of teaching material, etc. Aside from this the teachers were found not having the proper and sufficient knowledge about the subject matter.

5.2Major Findings of the Study

After the analysis of collected data the researcher has drawn out the following major findings:
5.2.1The study revealed that the majority of the teachers (58.33%) were having bachelor level from different faculty which is higher than the minimum requirement for the teacher of lower secondary level. 5.2.2Only 20% teachers were found having their degree from H.P.E. in education.

5.2.3Two teachers were found having the sports teacher training from nation sports council.
5.2.4The study found that the majority of the teachers, (i.e. 35%) were having the teaching experience of 6-10 years.
5.2.5It has been found that only 6.66% of the respondents were excellent in choosing the teaching method according to the content of the lesson whereas 41.67% were found good in same topic.
5.2.6The study revealed that 10% teachers were very poor in choosing teaching methods.
5.2.7Majority of the teachers, (i.e. 58.33%) were found applying satisfactory teaching materials in their classes.
5.2.8The study showed that 16.66% of the respondents were excellent in delivering the content to the students.
5.2.9It has been found that the mother tongue of teachers like Newari has been disturbing them to deliver the content in Nepali language.
5.2.10Majority of the teachers, i.e. 36.66% were found using evaluate technique only in satisfactory level.
5.2.11The study discovered that 18.33% of the teachers were found very poor class organization whereas 30% teachers were poor in this regards.
5.2.12Twenty percent teachers were found good in class control capacity.
5.2.13Only in the classes of 11.66% teachers, students were found participating excellently in teaching learning activities.
5.2.14The study revealed that 15% teachers were excellent in commanding power whereas 40% were good, 13.84% were poor and 5% were very poor in this regards.
5.2.15The study revealed that 13.34% teachers were not having proper and broad meaning of physical education.
5.2.16Fifteen percent teachers were found having no clear concept of the objectives of physical education.
5.2.17Only 40 teachers out of 60 were found having the general knowledge of sports psychology.
5.2.18Majority of the respondents, i.e. 35 numbers out of 60 were found not having the knowledge of the rules of football game.
5.2.1947 teachers out of 60 were found having the general knowledge of volleyball.
5.2.20Only 20 respondents out of 60 were found having the knowledge of the rules of basketball game.
5.2.21The study revealed that 48 respondents out of 60 were well known about the importance of minor games.
5.2.22The study revealed that 47 out of 60 respondents were familiar about the longjump event within the athletics.

5.3Conclusion

This study has conducted to find out the competency of the teachers of physical education from lower secondary level in Lalitpur district. Aside from this the researcher had tried to find out the problems faced by the teachers while implementing physical education curriculum. After the analysis of collected data, the study found that physical education has been teaching by the teachers of other subject rather than physical education. It has also found that the teachers who have been teaching physical education are not competent in teaching learning activities. Moreover, the study found that there are lots of problems faced by the teachers. Though the district under consideration is one of the developed districts in the field of education, the performance of trained teachers also found not so better in comparison with the untrained teachers. The study has found that the trained teachers also were not committed towards their profession. To solve these problems and to overcome the less competency level of the teachers, required steps should be taken from the concerned sectors and the teachers also should be dedicated and committed to their profession.

5.4Recommendations

After drawing the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations have been made:

5.4.1Recommendations for the improvement
The concerned sectors should appoint the physical education teacher who have taken their degree from same subject as specialization. All teachers involved in teaching profession should be provided in service training on subject wise. All the schools needed or provided with sufficient teaching learning materials. The teachers, who have been devoting themselves for effective teaching learning activities, should be evaluated and encouraged by the concerned authorities. 5.4.1Recommendations for the further study

A similar study can be done in large scale so that the generalization would have wider application. The following topic have been recommended for the further study: I.comparison between the performance of trained and untrained teachers II.performance of the teachers on the basis of their teaching experience III.comparison between the performance of teachers on the basis of their specialized subjects

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